Open Design a Collaborative Approach to Architecture

1 The potential of mathematical modelling for architecture and urban planning has increased dramatically in the nineties 8

1.1 Sjoelbak (Dutch shuffleboard) 10

1.2 Expert design sjoelbak 10

1.3 Multi-stakeholder sjoelbak design 11

1.4 Mathematical modelling in Open Design 16

2.1 In Open Design, the product champion needs several benefactors 23

3.1 Graphical representation of professor's time allocation problem 28

3.2 Professor's time allocation problem 28

3.3 Manufacturing allocation problem 31

3.4 Two different plans within one solution space 35

3.5 Floorplan of former KLM head office 37

3.6 Solution space made up of two parts connected by a small 'corridor' 40

3.7 Integration of numerical and geometrical modelling through expert feedback 42

3.8 Integration of numerical and geometrical modelling through sensitivity analysis of constraints 43

3.9 Integration of numerical and geometrical modelling through sensitivity analysis of geometry related parameters 44

4.1 The investment dilemma: moderate return, low risk versus high return, high risk 49

4.2 Risk profiles (cumulative probability) of two investment options 49

4.3 Monte Carlo simulation for a real estate investment 50

5.1 Information pertinent to architects 54

5.2 Two approaches to reducing Cassandra information 55

5.3 In Open Design, both information paid attention to and relevant information change when new constraints are added to the LP model 56

6.1 Quality specifications never cover exactly all relevant quality 58

6.2 Classification of seven categories of quality 59

6.3 In each new version of the LP model mode quality aspects are covered 60

6.4 Correction of empirical data by regression analysis of reference designs 63

7.1 Pareto optimal set for a problem with two objectives 73

7.2 Iterative procedure for (two) crucial stakeholders negotiation 74

8.1 Output illustration of Monte Carlo simulation 81

B.1 A's individual optimum for individual goods 90

B.2 B's individual optimum for individual goods 91

B.3 A and B's collective optimum for individual goods 91

B.4 Demand curves for A and B for collective goods 92

B.5 The collective optimum for collective goods 93

Open Design and Construct Management

1.1 Schematic pattern of the frequency of engineering changes tends to show peaks whenever a new group gets involved (Van Gunsteren, 2003, p. 128) 110

6.1 Former KLM head office, Plesmanweg, The Hague (Binnekamp, 1995, p. 1) 128

6.2 Floorplan of former KLM head office 128

6.3 'Divisional loss' according to RGD norm (Binnekamp, 1995, p. 23) 131

6.4 Architect's answer to 'divisional loss' criticism (Binnekamp, 1995, p. 23) 131

7.1 Aerial view of Schiphol Airport 136

8.1 Villa 65, one of the old office villas (all figs. from Wennekes (1997)) 138

8.2 Elements of the open space concept I 140

8.3 Elements of the open space concept II 141

8.4 Elements of the open space concept III 142

8.5 Fire protection plans 143

8.6 Floor height domes to provide sufficient daylight 144

8.7 Sun protection propositions 145

8.8 Integration ventilation and heating into floors 146

8.9 The same working areas before and after modification by users: cupboards and curtains, closed working units with separate ventilation system 147

8.10 The building exterior and the building interior modified by users 148

9.1 Map of integrated first and second petrochemical complexes (Seraya Chemicals) 153

9.2 Location of plant with respect to Singapore (Seraya Chemicals) 154

9.3 An aerial view of Seraya Chemical complex (Shell Venster, 1994, p.21) 154

9.4 Team composition should cover visible as well as invisible stakes 155

9.5 Gymnastic exercises at the site 179

9.6 Nanhai project divided into eleven 'silos' 182

10.1 Lavi-area of Spui quarter, The Hague, anno 1990 (Van Rossem, 1996, p. 56) 186

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