Multistakeholder design problem

In Open Design philosophy, all stakeholders having an interest can influence the design. As such they become decision makers, i.e. parties who collectively decide on how the design will ultimately look. Decision makers are, therefore, stakeholders who have a real influence on the design, as opposed to parties who only have a right to express their views but do not have any formal or sanction power.

In the fields of architecture and urban planning, a continuous transition from hierarchic to decentralised design has taken place over the past few decades.

In the seventies, the design process in construction and urban planning projects was almost always headed by one, or perhaps several, professional designers. While these were usually architects, they were sometimes construction engineers or, in the case of large-scale projects, urban and landscape designers. Today, however, a comprehensive design team consisting of all the parties involved in the preparatory work is responsible for the design process

*We have adapted a real sjoelbak in this way, and have observed that if one of the 'players' wishes to frustrate the process by manipulating his hinge-point, he succeeds - just as in practice!

and, as a consequence, designers other than architects nowadays also have a direct and strong influence on the design.

In the course of time the new participants acquired their own responsibility for a particular aspect of the design: the structural engineer for stability, the services engineer for the installation systems, the materials supplier for the materials used, the cost expert for the pricing, the traffic engineer for the infrastructure, the urban planner for the allocation of land, the contractor for the realisation of the construction work, the investor for funding, official institutes for standards and technical specifications and the user for the functional requirements. It is clear that professional designers have less influence than was formerly the case.

These developments have meant that most design work is currently done on a cooperative basis within a design team. During a collaborative work process, all designers (architectural and specialist designers) put forward their ideas and alternatives, discuss and evaluate combinations of solutions and select the best possible design. Team design in architecture and urban planning has become what is known in political science as a 'multi-actor' or 'multiparty' negotiation and decision-making process.

Over the past decades, we can notice a steady increase in the size of the design team and the number of specialists involved. Additionally, more time is now spent on specialist design than on architectural design. These developments have continuously increased the relevance of the multi-stakeholder design problem: how to cope with such a multitude of stakeholders in an effective and efficient design process? In dealing with this issue, the Open Design concept makes use of the following four paradigms:

1. The actor's viewpoint;

2. Pareto's criterion;

3. Methodological individualism;

4. Collective action.

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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