Flexible building

In the discussion about the planning of railway station areas the demand was raised by investors as well as by architects for the realisation of flexible build-

Table 9.5 Outcomes housing revenues alternative 3 (C million)

Basic

Alternative 3

Rental revenues 1st half exploitation

9.2

17.0

Rental revenues 2nd half exploitation

5.6

2.6

Revenues dwellings sold immediately

24.4

7.4

Revenues dwellings sold after 15 yrs

0.0

11.5

Total

39.2

38.5

Table 9.6 Outcomes of making the building more flexible

Requirements

Basic outcomes

New outcomes

Change

Total surface area dwellings (m2)

21 000

21 000

0

Number of standard apartments

9-53

53

53

0

Number of studios

-

-

0

Number of large apartments

41 -165

153

153

0

Number of lofts

2 - 21

7

7

0

Total surface area offices (m2)

46600

51 500

4 900

Number of parking places

>30 000

517

539

22

Investment costs (C million)

146.6

168.4

21.8

Revenues (net present value, C million)

155.9

174.4

18.5

Gross return (%)

5.5-7.5

6.5

6.37

-0.13

ings. A flexible building will also have user value in the future. But to realise the possibility of flexible use, the building requires special qualities, concerning the materials used, the access and the floorplan. A flexible building demands that the structure is such that the building can contain functions for both living and working. Generally speaking it is more expensive to build a flexible building, because the height of the floors of the dwellings should be larger than usual. This is necessary to make it possible that the same floors will be used as offices later on.

A larger height of the floors results in higher building costs per square metre for the dwellings. So a change will be made in the exogenous variables giving expression to the building costs for dwellings. These costs will be increased with € 682/m2 for dwellings.

The LP program calculated that an optimum solution within the solution space can be found, provided the numerical outcomes change as shown in Table 9.6.

Changes in the housing programme will not be necessary for this solution. But three major changes should be made and accepted for this solution. First of all an enlargement of the surface area of offices with about 4 900 m2. Secondly the acceptance of a lower gross return: 6.37%. Finally, a raise of the rental prices of the various functions.

The comment that these changes should be accepted is in fact a bit deceptive. They have been accepted already, since the stakeholders allowed them in the solution space by setting the minimum and the maximum values of the exogenous variables. The three changes result in a drop of the financial result by about € 3.3 million, compared to the outcomes of the basic model. This new solution has been found with the building costs of dwellings at € 1136/m2 instead of € 909/m2. This solution shows that it is justified to invest in the enlargement of the height of the floors of dwellings.

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