Contents

Preface 1

Acknowledgements 2

Introduction 5

1 The Purpose of Open Design 9

1.1 Expert design versus Open Design 9

1.2 Multi-stakeholder design problem 11

1.3 Necessity of tailor-made models 15

1.4 Conclusions 17

2 Managing the Open Design Process 19

2.1 The essence: acceptance of an open-ended outcome 19

2.2 Prerequisite for collective action: genuine treatment of constraints 20

2.3 Collective action and the risk of too much uniformity 21

2.4 Open designer as product champion 22

2.5 Persuasion by numerical and geometrical modelling 24

2.6 Conclusions 25

3 Modelling in Open Design 27

3.1 Principles of linear optimisation 27

3.2 Extension to Open Design: negotiation of constraints 33

3.3 An urban planning project 34

3.4 An office renovation project 36

3.5 Solution space versus solution point 39

3.6 Integration of numerical and geometrical modelling 41

3.7 Conclusions 44

4 Uncertainty reduction and risk assessment 45

4.1 Uncertainty and risk 45

4.2 Uncertainty reduction in Open Design 46

4.3 The variable to be optimised: financial return 47

4.4 Risk assessment in Open Design 48

4.5 Net Present Value or Internal Rate of Return 51

4.6 Conclusions 52

5 How to deal with the overabundance of information 53

5.1 Distinction between data and information 53

5.2 A typology of information 53

5.3 Information handling in Open Design 54

5.4 Conclusions 56

6 How to deal with quality requirements 57

6.1 A quality classification 57

6.2 Extension to Open Design: quality incorporated in the mathematical model 59

6.3 Quantification of soft variables 60

6.4 Reference designs 61

6.5 Conclusions 63

7 How to deal with conflicting requirements in the mathematical model 65

7.1 Sensitivity analysis 65

7.2 Multiple objectives 71

7.3 Conclusions 75

8 Open Design Computer Tools 77

8.1 Linear optimisation 77

8.2 Geometry computation 77

8.3 Financial return 78

8.4 Monte Carlo simulation 80

8.5 Regression analysis (curve fitting) 81

8.6 Conclusion 82

Appendix A Behavioural theory of Argyris and Schön, a summary 83

Appendix B Individual optimum versus collective optimum, consequences for Open Design 89

a. The individual optimum for individual goods 89

b. The collective optimum for individual goods 90

c. The collective optimum for collective goods 90

d. The individual optimum for collective goods 92

Best Investment Tips and Ideas

Best Investment Tips and Ideas

The dynamics of investing can be very emotional and stressful if not properly managed. When you are aware of what is all involved you give yourself the power to avoid those situations or at least manage them effectively. That will make your investments more exciting, rewarding, and enjoyable. Those positive factors will only lead to greater success in all that achieve with investments and life.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment