Conclusions

1. The essence of the Open Design process is the acceptance of an open-ended outcome by all players involved. In practice, this feature constitutes both a strength and a weakness of the Open Design approach.

2. The prerequisite for collective action - genuine treatment of constraints -implies that the open designer should never change a constraint without the consent of the associated stakeholders.

3. The risk of collective action generating too much uniformity is avoided in Open Design by distinguishing sharply between central decision making and individual choice.

4. Application of the Open Design approach requires a product champion, someone who fights for its adoption with all available means.

5. The product champion's code of conduct is open, non-manipulative behaviour. If necessary, his benefactors high up in the stakeholder organisations can address opponents in an autocratic way.

6. For genuinely convincing opponents, the product champion can benefit significantly from numerical and geometrical modelling.

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