Surveying

Building surveyors have been around before the great pyramids of Egypt were built. For the great pyramid at Giza, the surveyors understood how to calculate angles (52° on all sides), level the base within V4 in. and measure lengths (750 feet on all four sides with an error of only 8 in.). This is quite an accomplishment considering the fact that they had no sophisticated surveying equipment or the use of GPS. There are no indications that corrections were made for heat, tension of the measuring rope, or for keeping the measuring rope from sagging. The need for surveyors became more prominent in history as land was divided by the various monarchs of the time. The need to measure property areas and boundaries became the requirement for not only indicating land ownership but for tax purposes as well. During the Middle Ages, the surveyor had to lay out fortifications, castles, religious buildings, municipal buildings, and other structures. This all gave rise to the modern building urban surveyor who is responsible for the layout of the building site, location of the footings, determination of the floor elevations, and the complete alignment of the building being constructed. Due to limited access to sites in the urban environment, the surveyor has to deal with vibration from traffic and mass transit, the set up of equipment with pedestrian traffic (potential for knocking over the equipment), and trying to obtain line of sight with numerous impediments in the way (buildings, trucks, cars, cranes, construction equipment, etc.). See Exhibit 7-1 for the surveyor setting up within an urban environment. The surveyor uses several bench marks for setting up the instrument and for determining elevations. Exhibits 7-2, 7-3, and 7-4 show markers in the sidewalk that are used by the surveyor. However, the surveyor prevails, and the work is accomplished with the utmost accuracy. See Exhibit 7-5 for the site survey flowchart.

Exhibit 7-2

Setup marker in a sidewalk.

Exhibit 7-2

Setup marker in a sidewalk.

Exhibit 7-3

Control point sidewalk-2 marker

Exhibit 7-3

Control point sidewalk-2 marker

Exhibit 7-4

Benchmark in concrete base.

Exhibit 7-4

Benchmark in concrete base.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Greener Homes for You

Greener Homes for You

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Living Green. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Great Tips on Buying, Designing and Building an Eco-friendly Home.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment