History

Exhibit 22-1

Technology flow chart.

Technology

New methods, user friendly codes, more information, better testing and techniques

Increase productivity and simplify ways to achieve the final product objective

This will eventually reduce costs, produce better quality projects and reduce schedule times reduce some of the required trades people. We have seen the evolution from using ramps to get materials up and around a project to manually operated cranes to steam operated stationary cranes to mobile cranes to self-climbing cranes. A number of other innovations have helped advance the construction process as noted in Exhibit 22-2.

Thus, the industry has come a long way in the advancement of technology, but we have a long way to go to resolve the constant problems that afflict the construction industry. These problems include the following:

1. Better quality drawings

2. Better quality control

3. Better trained trades people

4. Better safety standards

5. Control of costs

6. Control of schedules

7. Reduction in the number of people it takes to put a project together

8. Reduction in misunderstandings among the construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC), the owner, and the subcontractor

9. Reduction of risks for all parties

The industry has also found ways to reduce some of the problems mentioned above. These include:

1. Use of building information modeling

2. New materials to assist in the construction process

3. Better ways to communicate

4. More accurate ways for surveying by the use of global positioning systems (GPS)

5. Use of cameras that give the CM/GC instant pictures

1. Stone structures to steel and concrete frames

2. Punched windows to curtain walls

3. Natural ventilation to air conditioning

4. Fireplaces to boilers

Exhibit 22-2

Innovations that have advanced the construction process.

5. Natural light and gas lamps to electric lamps

6. Thatch roof to single-ply roofing

7. Stairs to elevators/escalators

8. DC electricity to AC electricity

9. Moving concrete by wheel barrows to pump trucks

10. Stone walls to drywall

11. Plaster ceilings to ceiling tile

12. Cast iron to no hub piping

13. Welded pipe to pipe clamp compression fittings

14. 3000 psi concrete to 25,000 psi concrete

15. Levels and plumb bobs to lasers

16. Hand-drawn drawings to CAD

17. Written notes to rotary phones to cell phones

18. Telephone wires to cables

19. Hand-made steel sections to computerized manufacturing

20. Plain concrete to admixtures that can be used for hot and freezing weather-pouring conditions

21. Large steam operated pumps to small electric pumps

22. Exposed electric wires to BX or conduit or copper bus duct

23. Surveying transits and chains to total stations and GPS

24. Adding machines to computerized spreadsheets

25. Paper notes to computers and trios (e-mail, telephone, and two-way radios)

26. Poured in place concrete to precast or pre-stressed concrete

27. Soldier beams with rackers to slurry walls

28. Hand signals for crane operators to two-way radios

6. Computers that can process more of the contractor's required information

7. Use of the Internet to find relevant information

8. Better-quality testing methods

9. Codes

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Project Management Made Easy

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