Injections are the changes you will make to the system. The FRT connects your injections to the DEs of future reality. You then methodically work through the tree,

Project work creates win-win solutions for all stakeholders >

Project work creates win-win solutions for all stakeholders >


All projects complete successfully


All projects complete successfully

DE-4 Projects have few changes

DE-2 Projects complete for or less than the budget

DE-3 Projects always deliver the full scope

DE-1 Projects always complete on or before the scheduled completion date


~H Project durations get shorter and shorter


Resource has needed resources without internal fights


Figure 11.4 The DE map illustrates the relationship of DEs in the FRT.

determining where injections are necessary to create the future reality. Developing effective injections is the most creative stage of the Thinking Process. Experienced TOC experts like to word injections as completed effects, knowing that they will often have to develop a number of actions to achieve the injections. Collectively, the injections will create a future reality in which all the DEs exist.

The total list of injections follows:

• Reduce duration estimates by 50%. Project managers identify the project's network of activities and paths by unbuffered time and by resource. Activity durations are normal estimates, which we know to be high probability. We estimate the 50% probability duration by cutting these in half.

• Eliminate resource contentions and identify the critical chain. Project managers identify the critical chain as the longest chain of dependent events, including resolving resource contentions. This is the first focusing step.

• Insert a project buffer sized and placed to aggregate critical-chain contingency time (initially 50% of the critical-chain path length). This is one step to exploit the constraint.

• Ensure that resources work on the right task using prioritized tasklists or resource flags.

• Size and place feeding buffers on all paths that feed the critical chain. Project managers use the feeding buffers to immunize the critical chain from accumulation of negative variations on the feeding chains. This subordinates the other project paths to the constraint.

• The plan schedules activities to start as late as possible, protected by buffers. This injection helps to further subordinate the other paths to the constraint by allowing the critical chain (usually) to start first, with at most a few other paths.

• Resources deliver relay-racer performance (eliminate multitasking and the student syndrome). The resources work as quickly as possible, as soon as possible, on their activities and pass their work on as soon as they complete. No more student-syndrome work habits. This injection begins to elevate the constraint.

• The project manager provides resources with activity durations and estimated start times, not milestones. This injection helps to break the current win-lose paradigm associated with getting work done by the milestone date. It aids in encouraging resources to pass on their work when done. It aids in elevating the constraint.

• Project manager uses buffer management to control to plan. The project and feeding buffers provide the information to the project manager when to plan for recovery and when to take recovery actions. This is the first anticipatory measure ever used in project management! It also aids in elevating the constraint.

Figure 11.5 illustrates the injections in the notional overall sequence they appear in the FRT.

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Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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