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Figure 8-5: Sample of network constnid tion.

Figure 8-6: Sample of network construction.

Figure 8-5: Sample of network constnid tion.

Figure 8-6: Sample of network construction.

Figure 8-7: Sample of network construction.

terrelationships, this way of constructing the network would be too time-consuming to be practical. In Chapter 10 we will describe some computer software that can automatically generate the network.

Construction of a network may not be straightforward in some cases. For instance, there may be a need for a dummy activity to aid in indicating a particular precedence, via a dashed arc. A dummy activity has no duration and uses no resources. Its sole purpose is to indicate a technological relationship.

Figure 8-9 illustrates the proper way to use a dummy activity if two activities occur between the same two events. Figure 8-9 also shows why dummy activities may be needed for AOA networks. An activity is identified by its starting and ending nodes as well as its "name." For example, activities a and b both start from node 1 and end at node 2. Many computer programs that are widely used for finding the critical path and time for networks require the nodes to identify which activity is which. In our example, a and b would appear to be the same, both starting at node 1 and ending at node 2.

Figure 8-10 illustrates how to use a dummy activity when activities a, b, and c must precede activity d, but only a and b must precede activity e. Last, Figure 8-11 illustrates the use of dummy activities in a more complex setting.

Let us now consider a small project with ten activities in order to illustrate the network technique. Table 8-1 lists the activities, their most likely completion times, and the activities that must precede them. The table also includes optimistic and pessimistic estimates of completion time for each activity in the list. Actual activity

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

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