In the previous chapter we discussed the problem of structuring the interface between the project and its parent organization. We then introduced several issues bearing on the formation and management of the project team. It is now time to consider how to plan the work of the project and to examine how the project plan impacts on the structure of the project team as well as on its relationship to its parent.

There is an extensive literature on project planning. Some of it is concerned with the strategic aspects of planning, being focused on the choice of projects that are consistent with the organization's goals (e.g., |3, 9, 13, 19, 25, and 42]). Another group of works is aimed at the process of planning individual projects, given that they have been chosen as strategically acceptable (e.g., 11,6, 12, 13, 19, 21, 27, 30, 32, 35, and 44)). Laufer |23j, in particular, offers an interesting discussion on the theory of planning that includes some practical implications. Most fields have their own accepted set of project planning processes, though they are all similar, as we shall soon see. For example, in the field of Information Systems they refer to the standard "systems development cycle" for software projects, consisting of four or six or seven "phases", depending on which author is being consulted (e.g., see |36|). It is even standard to use the example of building a house to communicate the activities involved in each phase, as illustrated below:

• Definition Phase Here the problem is defined in a Requirements Document. A house would need heating, plumbing, lighting, space, storage, etc.

• Analysis Phase This phase produces the Functional Specifications ("deliverables") for the house such as the location of vents for central heating and air conditioning or outlets for phone service.

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