Secretary Receptionist presentation to the International Committee. More than 200 Anchorage residents traveled at their own expense to Lausanne, Switzerland for the presentation, but the selection went to Albertville, France. The Anchorage presentation had been impressive, however, and established the serious Olympic credentials of the city. Thus, when the IOC announced a month later that future winter games would be staggered from the summer games, beginning with the winter games in 1994 (rather than 1996), the USOC, with little debate, reselected Anchorage as its bid.
Again, the AOC began the preparations to make a serious bid for the next winter games. Cost of the bid effort was estimated to be $2.8 million, one of the least expensive bids ever (Paris' bid cost $22 million) due to the mas sive community volunteer effort and support. Two-thirds of all Alaskans (158,000} made a $5 contribution from their 1986 "dividend" checks to support the bid effort, and the 1987 contributions are expected to double that. In addition, corporate and private donations are expected to bring in $1 million and merchandise marketing should earn another $600,000.
The committee formalized its organization (see chart) and did an extensive economic analysis. One study on the long-term impact concluded that the Alaskan economy would receive between $150 and $750 million in net value from the games. The financial plan was to stage the games without any government funding. Television revenues would bring in two-thirds of the cost; sponsorships and ticket sales would provide most of the rest. The biggest expense would be the cost of facilities while the major operating expense during the games would be the cost of communications.
(Note: Anchorage was not selected by the IOC for the 1994 Winter Olympics.)
planning teams |32), and then improved by other individuals, groups, or teams, and improved again, and again.
If the appropriate end product is kept firmly in mind, this untidy process yields a project master plan. In this chapter and several following chapters, we discuss the end product, defining the parts of the plan and describing the characteristics each of the parts must have to be most useful in making sure that the project is completed and achieves its objectives.
► 5.1 INITIAL PROJECT COORDINATION
It is crucial that the project's objectives be clearly tied to the overall mission of the firm. Senior management should define the firm's intent in undertaking the project, outline the scope of the project, and describe the project's desired results. Without a clear beginning, project planning can easily go astray. It is also vital that a senior manager call and be present at an initial coordinating meeting as a visible symbol of top management's commitment to the project.
At the meeting, the project is discussed in sufficient detail that potential contributors develop a general understanding of what is needed. If the project is one of many similar projects, the meeting will be quite short and routine, a sort of "touching base" with other interested units. If the project is unique in most of its aspects, extensive discussion may be required.
Whatever the process, the outcome must be that: (1) technical objectives are established (though perhaps not "cast in concrete"), (2) basic areas of performance responsibility are accepted by the participants, and (3) some tentative schedules and budgets are spelled out. Each individual/unit accepting responsibility for a portion of the project should agree to deliver, by the next project meeting, a preliminary but detailed plan about how that responsibility will be accomplished. Such plans should contain descriptions of the required tasks, budgets, and schedules.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.