Figure Sample Work Breakdown Structure Organized by Phase

Strategic Planning Management
Figure 5-10. Sample Work Breakdown with Major Deliverables

Decomposition of the upper level WBS components requires subdividing the work for each of the deliverables or subprojects into its fundamental components, where the WBS components represent verifiable products, services, or results. The WBS can be structured as an outline, an organizational chart, a fishbone diagram, or other method. Verifying the correctness of the decomposition requires determining that the lower-level WBS components are those that are necessary and sufficient for completion of the corresponding higher level deliverables. Different deliverables can have different levels of decomposition. To arrive at a work package, the work for some deliverables needs to be decomposed only to the next level, while others need additional levels of decomposition. As the work is decomposed to greater levels of detail, the ability to plan, manage, and control the work is enhanced. However, excessive decomposition can lead to non-productive management effort, inefficient use of resources, and decreased efficiency in performing the work.

Decomposition may not be possible for a deliverable or subproject that will be accomplished far into the future. The project management team usually waits until the deliverable or subproject is clarified so the details of the WBS can be developed. This technique is sometimes referred to as rolling wave planning.

The WBS represents all product and project work, including the project management work. The total of the work at the lowest levels must roll up to the higher levels so that nothing is left out and no extra work is completed. This is sometimes called the 100% rule.

The PMI Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures - Second Edition provides guidance for the generation, development, and application of work breakdown structures. This standard contains industry-specific examples of WBS templates that can be tailored to specific projects in a particular application area.

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Project Management Made Easy

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