Figure The Relationship Between Stakeholders and the Project

Stakeholders have varying levels of responsibility and authority when participating on a project and these can change over the course of the project life cycle. Their responsibility and authority may range from occasional contributions in surveys and focus groups to full project sponsorship, which includes providing financial and political support. Stakeholders can have an adverse impact on the project objectives. Stakeholder identification is a continuous process and can be difficult. For...

Relationships Among Project Management Program Management and Portfolio Management

In mature project management organizations, project management exists in a broader context governed by program management and portfolio management. As Figure 1 -1 illustrates, organizational strategies and priorities are linked and have relationships between portfolios and programs, and between programs and individual projects. Organizational planning impacts the projects by means of project prioritization based on risk, funding, and the organization's strategic plan. Organizational planning...

Estimate Costs

Estimate Costs is the process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities. See Figures 7-2 and 7-3. Cost estimates are a prediction that is based on the information known at a given point in time. It includes the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project. Cost trade-offs and risks must be considered, such as make versus buy, buy versus lease, and the sharing of resources in order to achieve...

Perform Integrated Change Control

Perform Integrated Change Control is the process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents and the project management plan. The Perform Integrated Change Control process is conducted from project inception through completion. The project management plan, the project scope statement, and other deliverables are maintained by carefully and continuously managing changes, either by rejecting changes...

Project Management Plan Updates

Elements of the project management plan that may be updated include, but are not limited to Schedule management plan. The schedule management plan (Section 6.0) is updated to reflect changes in process and practice driven by the risk responses. This may include changes in tolerance or behavior related to resource loading and leveling, as well as updates to the schedule itself. Cost management plan. The cost management plan (Section 7.0) is updated to reflect changes in process and practice...

Role of a Project Manager

The project manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project objectives. The role of a project manager is distinct from a functional manager or operations manager. Typically the functional manager is focused on providing management oversight for an administrative area, and operations managers are responsible for a facet of the core business. Depending on the organizational structure, a project manager may report to a functional manager. In other cases, a...

Monitor and Control Project Work

Monitor and Control Project Work is the process of tracking, reviewing, and regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan. Monitoring is an aspect of project management performed throughout the project. Monitoring includes collecting, measuring, and distributing performance information, and assessing measurements and trends to effect process improvements. Continuous monitoring gives the project management team insight into the health of the...

PMBOK Guide Fourth Edition

An American National Standard ANSI PMI99-001-2008 Published by Project Management Institute, Inc. 14 Campus Boulevard Newtown Square, Pennsylvania 19073-3299 USA. Phone +610-356-4600 Fax +610-356-4647 E-mail customercare pmi.org 2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. PMI, the PMI logo, PMP, the PMP logo, PMBOK, PgMP, Project Management Journal, PM Network, and the PMI Today logo are registered marks of Project Management Institute, Inc. The Quarter Globe Design is a...

Role A defined function to be performed by a project team member such as testing filing inspecting coding

A form of progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail at a low level of the work breakdown structure, while the work far in the future is planned at a relatively high level of the work breakdown structure, but the detailed planning of the work to be performed within another one or two periods in the near future is done as work is being completed during the current period. Root Cause Analysis Technique...

Acknowledged the role of the Project Office in Section

Added references to project management involving developing economies, as well as social, economic, and environmental impacts, in Section 2.5.4. 6. Added expanded treatment of Earned Value Management in Chapter 4 (Project Integration Management), Chapter 7 (Project Cost Management), and Chapter 10 (Project Communications Management). 7. Rewrote Chapter 11 (Project Risk Management). The chapter now contains six processes instead of the previous four processes. The six processes are Risk...

Practice A specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that

Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Technique . A schedule network diagramming technique in which schedule activities are represented by boxes (or nodes). Schedule activities are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed. Precedence Relationship. The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In current usage, however, precedence relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are...

Near Critical Activity A schedule activity that has low total float The concept of nearcritical is equally applicable

See project schedule network diagram. Network Analysis. See schedule network analysis. Network Logic. The collection of schedule activity dependencies that makes up a project schedule network diagram. Network Path. Any continuous series of schedule activities connected with logical relationships in a project schedule network diagram. Node. One of the defining points of a schedule network a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines. Objective. Something toward...

Processes are presented here as discrete components with welldefined interfaces in practice they can overlap and

Some advanced practitioners distinguish the printed project schedule information (schedule) from the schedule data and calculations that produce the schedule, by referring to the scheduling engine populated with project data as the schedule model. However, in general practice the schedule and the schedule model are referred to as the schedule. Therefore, the PMBOK Guide uses the term schedule. On some projects, especially those of smaller scope, defining activities, sequencing activities,...

Project Management Process Groups

The following sections identify and describe the five Project Management Process Groups required for any project. These five Process Groups have clear dependencies and are typically performed in the same sequence on each project. They are independent of application areas or industry focus. Individual Process Groups and individual constituent processes are often iterated prior to completing the project. The constituent processes can have interactions within a Process Group and among Process...

Project Integration Management

Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities needed to identity, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups. In the project management context, integration includes characteristics of unification, consolidation, articulation, and integrative actions that are crucial to project completion, successfully managing stakeholder expectations, and meeting requirements. Project...

Update

The 2000 Edition superseded the Project Management Institute's (PMI ) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), published in 1996. The scope of the project using the 1996 publication as its starting point, was to Add new material, reflecting the growth of the knowledge and practices in the field of project management by capturing those practices, tools, techniques, and other relevant items that have become generally accepted. (Generally accepted means being applicable...

Develop Project Management Plan Tools and Techniques

When developing the project management plan, expert judgment is utilized to Tailor the process to meet the project needs, Develop technical and management details to be included in the project management plan, Determine resources and skill levels needed to perform project work, Define the level of configuration management to apply on the project and Determine which project documents will be subject to the formal change control process.

What is Project Management

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. Project management is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of the 42 logically grouped project management processes comprising the 5 Process Groups. These 5 Process Groups are Monitoring and Controlling, and Managing a project typically includes Addressing the various needs, concerns, and expectations of the stakeholders as the...

Project Governance Across the Life Cycle

The project governance approach should be described in the project management plan. A project's governance must fit within the larger context of the program or organization sponsoring it. Within those constraints, as well as the additional limitations of time and budget, it is up to the project manager and the project management team to determine the most appropriate method of carrying out the project. Decisions must be made regarding who will be involved, what resources are...

Schedule Compression

Schedule compression shortens the project schedule without changing the project scope, to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives. Schedule compression techniques include Crashing. A schedule compression technique in which cost and schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to determine how to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least incremental cost. Examples of crashing could include approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, or paying to expedite...

Develop Schedule

Develop Schedule is the process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule. Entering the activities, durations, and resources into the scheduling tool generates a schedule with planned dates for completing project activities. Developing an acceptable project schedule is often an iterative process, it determines the planned start and finish dates for project activities and milestones. Schedule development can require...

Precedence Diagramming Method PDM

PDM is a method used in Critical Path Methodology (CPM) for constructing a project schedule network diagram that uses boxes or rectangles, referred to as nodes, to represent activities, and connects them with arrows that show the logical relationships that exist between them. Figure 6-7 shows a simple project schedule network diagram drawn using PDM. This technique is also called Activity-On-Node (AON), and is the method used by most project management software packages. PDM includes four types...

Communication Requirements Analysis

The analysis of the communication requirements determines the information needs of the project stakeholders. These requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information. Project resources are expended only on communicating information that contributes to success, or where a lack of communication can lead to failure. The project manager should also consider the number of potential communication channels or paths as an...

Conflict Management

include scarce resources,scheduling priorities, and personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members...

Commercial Publishers

PMI is the premier publisher of books on project management. Many commercial publishers produce books on project management and related fields. Commercial publishers that regularly produce such materials include Addison-Wesley AMACOM Gower Press John Wiley & Sons Marcel Dekker McGraw-Hill Prentice-Hall Probus Most project management books from these publishers are available from PMI. Many of the books available from these sources include extensive bibliographies or lists of suggested...

Contributors And Reviewers Of Pmbok Guide Fourth Edition

PMI volunteers first attempted to codify the Project Management Body of Knowledge in th& Special Report on Ethics, Standards, and Accreditation, published in 1983. Since that time, other volunteers have come forward to update and improve that original document and contribute to this globally recognized standard for project management, PMI's A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide). This appendix lists, alphabetically within groupings, those individuals who have...

Portfolio Management

A portfolio refers to a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. The projects or programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related. For example, an infrastructure firm that has the strategic objective of maximizing the return on its investments may put together a portfolio that includes a mix of projects in oil and gas, power, water, roads,...

Closing Processes [Process Group Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Project Management

Any numbering system used to uniquely identify each component of the work breakdown structure. Collect Requirements Process . Collect Requirements is the process of defining and documenting stakeholders' needs to meet the project objectives. Co-location Technique . An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity. Common Cause. A...

Close Project or Phase

Close Project or Phase is the process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project or phase. When closing the project, the project manager will review all prior information from the previous phase closures to ensure that all project work is complete and that the project has met its objectives. Since project scope is measured against the project management plan, the project manager will review that document to ensure completion...

Negotiation

Staff assignments are negotiated on many projects. For example, the project management team may need to negotiate with Functional managers to ensure that the project receives appropriately competent staff in the required time frame, and that the project team members will be able, willing, and authorized to work on the project until their responsibilities are completed, Other project management teams within the performing organization to appropriately assign scarce or specialized human...

Project Management Processes For A Project

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. This application of knowledge requires the effective management of appropriate processes. A process is a set of interrelated actions and activities performed to achieve a pre-specified product, result, or service. Each process is characterized by its inputs, the tools and techniques that can be applied, and the resulting outputs. As explained in Chapters 1 and 2,...

Direct and Manage Project Execution Tools and Techniques Expert Judgment

Expert judgment is used to assess the inputs needed to direct and manage execution of the project management plan. Such judgment and expertise is applied to all technical and management details during this process. This expertise is provided by the project manager and the project management team using specialized knowledge or training. Additional expertise is available from many sources, including Other units within the organization, Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors, and...

Perform Quality Control

Cost Quality Project Management

Perform Quality Control is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. Quality control is performed throughout the project. Quality standards include project processes and product goals. Project results include deliverables and project management results, such as cost and schedule performance. Quality control is often performed by a quality control department or similarly titled organizational unit....

Develop Project Management Plan Outputs

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes and includes but is not limited to The life cycle selected for the project and the processes that will be applied to each phase, Results of the tailoring by the project management team as follows Project management processes selected by the project management team, Level of implementation of each selected process, o Descriptions of the tools and techniques to...

List Of Tables And Figures

Portfolio, Program, and Project Management Table 1 -1. Comparative Overview of Project, Program, and Portfolio Figure 2-1. Typical Cost and Staffing Levels Across the Project Life Figure 2-2. Impact of Variable Based on Project Figure 2-3. Example of a Single-Phase Figure 2-4. Example of a Three-Phase Figure 2-5. Example of a Project with Overlapping Figure 2-6. The Relationship Between Stakeholders and the Table 2-1. Organizational Influences on Figure 2-7. Functional Figure 2-8....

Figure Sample Work Breakdown Structure Organized by Phase

Strategic Planning Management

Sample Work Breakdown with Major Deliverables Figure 5-10. Sample Work Breakdown with Major Deliverables Decomposition of the upper level WBS components requires subdividing the work for each of the deliverables or subprojects into its fundamental components, where the WBS components represent verifiable products, services, or results. The WBS can be structured as an outline, an organizational chart, a fishbone diagram, or other method. Verifying the correctness of the...

Project Management Body of Knowledge

The PMBOK3 Guide is the standard for managing most projects most of the time across many types of industries. This standard describes the project management processes, tools, and techniques used to manage a project toward a successful outcome. This standard is unique to the project management field and has interrelationships to other project management disciplines such as program management and portfolio management. Project management standards do not address all details of every topic. This...

Common Project Management Process Interactions

Deliverable Management Process

The project management processes are presented as discrete elements with well-defined interfaces. However, in practice they overlap and interact in ways that are not completely detailed here. Most experienced project management practitioners recognize there is more than one way to manage a project. The required Process Groups and their constituent processes are guides for applying appropriate project management knowledge and skills during the project. The application of the project management...

Project Cost Management

Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in estimating, budgeting, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget. Figure 7-1 provides an overview of the Project Cost Management processes which include the following 7.1 Estimate Costs The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities. 7.2 Determine Budget The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work...