• definition - the time taken, by a novice, to learn how to operate the package to produce a standard document;

• test - interview novices to ascertain their previous experience of word processing. Supply them with a machine, the software, a training manual and a standard document to set up. Time how long it takes them to learn how to set the document up.

• definition - the time taken for an experienced user to produce a standard document;

• lest - time user who has experience of package to produce the standard document;

This topic of evaluation is an extensive one and the pointers above leave all sons of unanswered questions in the air. Readers who w ish to explore this area should read one of the more specialist books on the topic.

12.5 Availabilityand mean time between failures

Each day the system should be available from 18.00 - 8.00 hours. = 10 hours.

Over four weeks that should he 10x5x4 hours = 200 hours.

It was unavailable for one day. i.e. 10 hours.

It was unavailable until I0.(K) on two other days, = 4 hours.

The hours available were therefore 200 - 10 - 4 = 186 hours.

Availability would therefore be 186/200 x 100 = 93%

Assuming that three failures are counted, mean time between failures would be 186/3 = 62 hours.

12.6 Entry requirements for an activity different from the exit requirements for another activity that immediately precedes it

It is possible for one activity to start before the immediately preceding activity has been completely finished. In this case, the entry requirement for the following activity has been satisfied, even though the exit requirement of the preceding activity has not. For example, software modules could be used for performance testing of the hardware platform even though there are some residual defects concerning screen layouts.

Another situation is where the entry requirements could vary from the preceding exit requirements is where a particular resource needs to be available.

12.7 Entry and exit requirements

• Entry requirements A program design must have been produced that has been reviewed and any rework required by the review must have been carried out and been inspected by the chair of the rev iew group.

• Exit requirements A program must have been produced that has been compiled and is free of compilation errors; the code must have been reviewed and any rework required by the review must have been carried out and been inspected by the chair of the review group.

It should be noted that the review group may use checklists for each type of product reviewed and these could be regarded as further entry/exit requirements.

• Control of equipment In the software environment, this would include the 12.8 Application of software tools involved. Of particular concern, for example, would be the BS EN ISO 9001 compilers used. These would need to be known to work correctly and also to standards to the work in the same way as compilers of the same language in other machine software environments in order to assist portability. environment

• Testing status There would be concern that software components which are being updated are not released to users before adequate testing has taken place. These issues are addressed by change control and configuration management procedures.

• Distribution Some concerns here would be to do with the security of physical copying and distribution of software via magnetic and electronic media. Configuration management would also be important to ensure that the version of the software that is being shipped has all the correct components.

The project manager could check who actually carried out the certification. They 12.9 Precautionary could also discover the scope of the BS EN ISO 9001 certification that was steps when work is awarded. I-or example, it could be that certification only applied to the processes contracted out? that created certain products and not others.

Perhaps the most important point is that the project manager will need to be reassured that the specification to which the contractors will be working is an adequate reflection of the requirements of the client organization.

The quality circle would be looking at the process in general while the review group would look at a particular instance of a product. The use of review groups alone could be inefficient because they could be removing the same type of defect again and again rather than addressing, as the quality circle does, the task of stopping the defects at their source.

12.11 The important differences between a quality circle and a review group?

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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