Incidents

11.5 Social loafing Among other ideas, the effects of social loafing can be reduced by:

• making the work of each performer indiv idually identifiable;

• involv ing and interesting group members in the outcome of group efforts;

• rewarding individuals for their contributions to the group effort (rather like sports teams who pick out a 'club player of the year").

11.6 Effect of IT on Developments in IT that assist co-operative working, especially the advent of the Delphi electronic mail and groupwarc such as Lotus Notes, will cut quite considerably the technique communication delays involved in the Delphi technique.

More than one type of power can he involved in each case.

i. Some expert power is involved here, but for those who are subject to the audit, the main type of power is connection power as the auditor will produce a report that will go to higher management. External auditors often have coercive power.

ii. Here, power will mainly be expert- and information-based, but as the consultant will report to higher management, connection power also exists.

iii. This sounds pretty coercive.

iv. Brigette has some connection power. The technical expertise that is involved in her job means she has some expert power. She has little or no coercive power as she is not the manger of the staff involved. She might be able to exert some reward power on the basis of an informal Til do you a favour if you'll do me a favour' arrangement!

v. Amanda is unlikely to have direct coercive powers although she might be able to institute disciplinary procedures. Through the system of annual reviews common to many organizations, she might have some reward power. Connection power, through her access to higher management, is also present. Her access to users means she has information power. If she brings specific expertise to the project (such as analysis skills) she might have some expert power. By acting as a role model that other project team members might want to emulate she may even be displaying referent power!

i. The clerk will know much more than anyone else about the practical details of 11.8 Appropriate the work. Heavy task-oriented supervision would therefore not be management styles appropriate. As the clerk is working in a new environment and forging new relationships, a considerable amount of people-oriented supervision/support might be needed initially.

ii. Both task-oriented and people-oriented management would he needed with the trainee.

iii. The experienced maintenance programmer has probably had considerable autonomy in the past. The extensions to the systems could have a considerable, detailed, impact on this person's work. A very carefully judged increase in task-oriented management w ill be required for a short time.

11.7 Classification of types of power

12.1 Selection of payroll package for college

(a) Carry out an investigation to find out what the users' requirements really are. This might uncover that there are different sets of requirements for different groups of users.

(h) Organize the requirements into groups relating to individual qualities and attributes. These might be, for example, functionality (the range of features that the software has), price, usability, capacity, efficiency, flexibility, reliability and serviceability.

(c) Some of these requirements will he of an absolute nature. For example, an application will have to hold records for up to a certain maximum number of employees. If it cannot, it will have to be immediately eliminated from further consideration.

(d) In other cases the requirement is relative. Some of the relative requirements are more important than others. A low price is desirable but more expensive software cannot be ruled out straightaway. This can be reflected by giv ing each of the requirements a rating, a score out of 10. say, for importance.

(e) A range of possible candidate packages needs to be identified. If there are lots of possibilities, an initial screening, for instance, by price, can be applied to reduce the contenders to a manageable shortlist.

(f) Practical ways of measuring the desired qualities in the software have to he dev ised. In some cases, for example with price and capacity, sales literature or a technical specification can be consulted. In other cases, efficiency for instance, practical trials could be conducted, while in yet other cases a survey of existing users might prov ide the information required.

(g) It is likely that some software is going to be deficient in some ways, but that this will be compensated by other qualities. A simple way of combining the findings on different qualities is to give a mark out of 10 for the relative presence/absence of the quality. Fach of these scores can be multiplied by a score out of 10 for the importance of the quality (see (d>) and the results of all these multiplications can be summed to give an overall score for the software.

12.2 Relationships • Indifferent Usability and reusability would seem to have little bearing on between pairs of each other in spite of the similarity in their names. (Although it is usually quality factors possible to identify at least a tenuous complementary or conflicting relationship between two quality factors if you try hard enough).

• Complementary A program that demonstrated flexibility might also be expected to have a high degree of maintainability.

• Conflicting A program can be highly efficient because it exploits the architecture of a particular type of hardware to the full, but so not be easy to transfer to another hardware configuration.

The presence of the same software quality criterion for more than one software 12.3 Quality criteria quality factor would indicate that the software quality factors are complementary.

There arc many that could be defined and just two examples are given below. One 12.4 Possible point that may emerge is that the software might be best broken down into a quality specifica-

number of different function areas, each of which can be evaluated separately, tions for word such as document preparation, presentation, mail merging and so on. For example: processing

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