Project control

Project control in BS 6079 is considered under the three distinct headings of change control, financial control and progress monitoring. Change control BS 6079 recognizes that it is essential to have a formal mechanism to control changes, hut while the requirements of such an administrative system are outlined, it does not specify any detailed steps. A major change can call for the planning cycle to he re-executed. Financial control BS 6079 makes more specific references to financial control...

Info

Figure 6.14 Tw o paths linked by a dummy activity. Dummy activities, shown as dotted lines an the network diagram, have a zero duration and use no resources. They are often used to aid in the layout of network drawings as in Figure 6.15. The use of a dummy activity where two activities share the same start and end nodes makes it easier to distinguish the activity end-points. Figure 6.15 Another use of a dummy activity. Where parallel activities have a time lag we may show this as a ladder' of...

Collecting the data

As a rule, managers will try to break down long activities into more controllable tasks of one or two weeks duration. However, it w ill still be necessary to gather information about partially completed activities and. in particular, forecasts of how much work is left to be completed. It can be difficult to make such forecasts accurately. A software developer working on Amanda's project has written the first 250 lines Exercise 9.1 of a Cobol program that is estimated to require 500 lines of...

Identifying resource requirements

The first step in producing a resource allocation plan is to list the resources that w ill be required along w ith the expected level of demand. This w ill normally be done by considering each activity in turn and identifying the resources required. It is likely, however, that there will also be resources required that are not activity specific but arc part of the project's infrastructure (such as the project manager) or required to support other resources (office space, for example, might be...

Problems with software projects

One way of deciding what ought to be covered in 'software project management' is to consider what problems need to be addressed. Traditionally, management has been seen as the preserve of a distinct class within the organization. As technology has made the tasks undertaken by an organization moa* sophisticated, many management tasks seem to have become dispersed throughout the organization there are management systems rather than managers. Nevertheless, the successful project will normally have...

Representing lagged activities

We might come across situations where we wished to undertake two activities in parallel so long as there is a lag between the two. We might wish to document amendments to a program as it was being tested - particularly if evaluating a prototype. In such a case we could designate an activity 'test and document amendments'. This would, however, make it impossible to show amendment recording starting after testing had begun and finishing a little after the completion of testing. Where activities...

Reconsider the prcccdcncc requirements

If attempting to shorten critical activities proves insufficient, the next step is to consider the constraints by which some activities have to be deferred pending completion of others. The original project network would most probably have been drawn up assuming 'ideal' conditions and 'normal' working practices. It might be that, to avoid the project delivering late, it is now worth questioning whether as yet unstarted activities really do have to await the completion of others. It might, in a...

What is a project

Dictionary definitions of 'project' include A specific plan or design' A pianned undertaking' A large undertaking for example, a public works scheme' Longman Concise English Dictionary, 1982. specific objectives are to be met or a specified product is to be created the project has a predetermined time span (which may be absolute or relative) work is carried out for someone other than yourself work involves several specialisms work is carried out in several phases the resources that are...

Choosing technologies

An outcome of project analysis will he the selection of the most appropriate methodologies and technologies. Methodologies include techniques like the various flavours of object-oriented (CX)) development. SSADM and JSP (Jackson Structured Programming) while technologies might include an appropriate application-building environment, or the use of know ledge-based system tools. As well as the products and activities, the chosen technology w ill influcncc the follow ing aspects of a project the...

Network planning models

CPM was developed by the Du Pont Chemical Company who published the method in 1958. claiming that it had saved them 1 million in its first year of use. These project scheduling techniques model the project's activities and their relationships as a network. In the network, time flows from left to right. These techniques were originally developed in the 1950s - the two best known being CPM (Critical Path Method) and PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique). More recently a variation on these...

The objectives of activity planning

Chapter 11 discusses motivation in more detail. This co-ordination will normally form part of Programme Management In addition to providing project and resource schedules, activity planning aims to achieve a number of other objectives which may be summarized as follows. Feasibility assessment Is the project possible within required timescales and resource constraints It is not until we have constructed a detailed plan that we can forecast a completion date with any reasonable knowledge of its...

Configuration librarians role

Control of changes and documentation ought to be the responsibility of someone who may variously be named the Configuration Librarian, the Configuration Manager or Project Librarian. Among this person's duties would be the identification of all items that are subject to change control the establishment and maintenance of a central repository of the master copies of all project documentation and software products the setting up and running of a formal set of procedures to deal with changes the...

Project schedules

Before work commences on a project or. possibly, a stage of a larger project, the project plan must be developed to the level of showing dates when each activity should start and finish and when and how much of each resource w ill be required. Once the plan has been refined to this level of detail we call it a project schedule. Creating a project schedule comprises four main stages. The first step in producing the plan is to decide what activities need to be carried out and in what order they...

Further exercises

A bank which provides loans to home buyers has a long history of implementing computer-based information systems to support the work of its branches. It uses a proprietary structured systems analysis and design method. It has been decided to create a computer model of the property market. This would attempt for example to calculate the effect of changes of interest rates on house values. There is some concern that the usual methodology used for IS development would not be appropriate for the...

Function points Mark II

This method has came into the public domain with the publication ol the book by Charles R. Symons Software Sizing and Estimating - Mark IIFPA John Wiley and Sons, 1991. The Mark II method has been recommended by the CCTA (Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency), which lays down standards for UK government projects. At one time this Mark II approach seemed to be a good method to use with SSADM but some difficulties are now apparent. The 'Mark II' label implies an improvement and...

Sequencing and scheduling activities

Throughout a project, we will require a schedule that clearly indicates when each of the project's activities is planned to occur and what resources it will need. We shall be considering scheduling in more detail in Chapter 8. but let us consider in outline how we might present a schedule for a small project. One way of presenting such a plan is to use a bar chart as shown in f igure 6.6. 'The chart shown has been drawn up taking account of the nature of the development process (that is....

Costbenefit evaluation techniques

We would consider proceeding w ith a project only where the benefits outweigh the costs. However, in order to choose among projects, we need to take into account the timing of the costs and benefits as well as the benefits relative to the size of the investment. Consider the project cash flow estimates for four projects at 10E shown in Exercise 3.2 Table 3.2. Negative values represent expenditure and positive values income. Rank the four projects in order of financial desirability and make a...

Estimating by analogy

The use of analogy is also called case-based reasoning. The estimator seeks out projects that have been completed (source cases) and that have similar characteristics to the new project (the target case). The effort that has been recorded for the matching source case can then be used as a base estimate for the target. The estimator should then try to identify any differences between the target and the source and make adjustments to the base estimate for the new project. Iliis might be a good...

Calculating the standard deviation of each project event

Standard deviations for the project events can be calculated by carrying out a The square of the forward pass using the activity standard deviations in a manner similar to that used standard deviation is with expected durations. There is. however, one small difference - to add two known as the variance, standard deviations we must add their squares and then find the square root of the Standard deviations may sum. Exercise 7.5 illustrates the technique. not be added together but The standard dev...

The acquisition process

A previous discussion in the chapter on contract management has already mentioned ISO 12207 in this context and so we will avoid going into excessive detail herc. Table I). 1 ISO 12207 Supporting and organizational processes Table I). 1 ISO 12207 Supporting and organizational processes Figure D.2 portrays the main activities that compose the acquisition process. The initiation activity starts with the description of the 'concept' that the acquirer wishes to make real, or the need that the...

The waterfall model

This is the 'classical' model of system development. An alternative name for this model is the one-shot approach. As can be seen from the example in Figure 4.2, there is a sequence of activities working from top to bottom. The diagram shows some arrows pointing upwards and backwards. This indicates that a later stage might reveal the need for some extra work at an earlier stage, but this should definitely be the exception rather the rule. After all. the flow of a waterfall should be downwards...

Software effort estimation techniques

Barry Bochm. in his classic work on software effort models, identified the main ways of deriving estimates of software development effort as algorithmic models - which use 'effort drivers' representing characteristics of the target system and the implementation environment to predict effort expert judgement - where the advice of knowledgeable stall is solicited analogy - where a similar, completed, project is identified and its actual effort is used as a basis for the new project Parkinson -...

Organizational behaviour a background

1'he roots of studies in OB can be traced back to work done in the late I91 and early 20lh centuries by Frederick Taylor. By studying the way that manual workers did tasks, he attempted to work out the most productive way of doing these tasks. The workers were then trained to do the work in this way. Taylor had three basic objectives to select the best person for the job to instnict such people in the best methods to give incentives in the form of higher wages to the best workers. 'Taylorism'...

A Prince project organization

PRINCE identifies roles rather than jobs. Impending on the circumstances, a role could, in fact be carried out by more that one person, or a single person could assume more than one role. PRINCE 2 is based on the perception that the project will involve users of the products of the project, on the one hand, and suppliers of goods and services needed by the project on the other. While the users and suppliers could in fact Note that we have followed the convention of indicating specific PRINCE 2...

Choice of process models

'The word process* is sometimes used to emphasize the idea of a system in action. In order to achieve an outcome, the system will have to execute one or more activities this is its process. This idea can be applied to the development of computer-based systems where a number of interrelated activities have to be undertaken to create a linal product. These activities can be organized in different ways and we can call these process models. A major part of the planning will be the choosing of the...

The recruitment process

Although this is an important matter, it has to be stressed that often project leaders have little choice about the people w ho w ill make up the teams - they have to make do with the 'materials that are to hand'. Rccmitmcni might very well be regarded as an organizational responsibility you might be recruiting someone who will, over a period of time, w ork in many different parts of the same organization. Meredith Belbin usefully distinguishes between eligible and suitable candidates. An...

Using dummy activities

When two paths within a network have a common event although they are. in other respects independent, a logical error such as that illustrated in Figure 6.13 might occur. Suppose that, in a particular project, it is necessary to specify a certain piece of hardware before placing an order for it and before coding the software. Before coding the software it is also necessary to specify the appropriate data structures, although clearly we do not need to wait for this to be done before the hardware...

Cost schedules

It is now time to produce a detailed cost schedule showing weekly or monthly costs over the life of the project. This will provide a more detailed and accurate estimate of costs and will serve as a plan against which project progress can he monitored. Calculating cost is straightforward where the organization has standard cost figures for staff and other resources. Where this is not the case, then the project manager will have to calculate the costs. In general, costs are categorized as...

The scheduling sequence

(ioing from an ideal activity plan to a costcd schedule can be represented as a sequence of steps, rather like the classic waterfall life-cycle model. In the ideal world, we would start with the activity plan and use this as the basis for our risk assessment. The activity plan and risk assessment would provide the basis for our resource allocation and schedule from which we would produce cost schedules. In practice, as we have seen by looking at Amanda's project, successful resource allocation...

The forward pass

During the forward pass, earliest dates are recorded as they are calculated. For events, they are recorded on the network diagram and for activities they are recorded on the activity table. The forward pass is carried out to calculate the earliest date on which each event may be achieved and the earliest dale on which each activity may be started and completed. T he earliest date for an event is the earliest date by which all activities upon which it depends can be completed. By convention,...

A procedural codeoriented approach

The previous approach would be useful at the design stage of a project and where a procedural programming language is not the primary vehicle for development. However how could you estimate the effort to develop an individual software module using a procedural language An approach might be based on the following steps. . Envisage the number and type of programs in the fined system This is easiest where the system is of a conventional and well understood nature. Most information systems are...

Step Identify project products and activities

The more detailed planning of the individual activities that will be needed now takes place. The longer term planning is broad and in outline, while the more immediate tasks are planned in some detail. Step 4.1 Identify and describe project products (or deliverables) In general there can be no project products that do not have activities that create them. Wherever possible, we ought also to ensure the reverse that there are no activities that do not produce a tangible product. Making sure we...

Introduction to Step Wise project planning

This chapter describes a framework of basic steps in project planning and control upon which the follow ing chapters build. There are many different techniques that can be used in project planning and this chapter gives an overview of the points at which these techniques can be used during project planning. Chapter 4 w ill illustrate how different projects need different approaches, but this framework should always apply to the planning process used. The framework described is called the Step...

Cost monitoring

Expenditure monitoring is an important component of project control. Not only in itself, but also because it provides an indication of the effort that has gone into (or at least been charged to) a project. A project might be on time but only because more money has been spent on activities than originally budgeted. A cumulative expenditure chart such as that shown in Figure 9.9 provides a simple method of comparing actual and planned expenditure. By itself it is not particularly meaningful -...

Problems with over and underestimales

Parkinson's law was originally expounded in C. Northcote Parkinson's tongue-in-cheek book Parkinson's Law. John Murray. 1957. A project leader such as Amanda will need to be aware that the estimate itself, if known to the development team, will influence the time required to implement the system. An over-estimate might cause the project to take longer than it would otherwise. This can be explained by the application of two 'laws'. Parkinson's Law 'Work expands to fill the time available', which...

Earned Value

Earned Value Analysis, also known as Budgeted Cost ol Work Performed, is recommended by a number of agencies including the US and Australian departments of defence. It is also recommended in BS 6079. Earned Value Analysis has gained in popularity in recent years and may be seen as a refinement of the cost monitoring discussed in the previous section. Earned Value Analysis is based on assigning a 'value' to each task or work package (as identified in the WBS) based on the original expenditure...

Prince

Definition of project Temporary organization to Project organization Supplier vs Customer Project authority Stage organization Product-driven (Product Breakdown Structures) Product descriptions in the plan - turned into Work Packages by Project Manager Only minimal reference to techniques (such as to Activity Networks) Configuration, quality and risk management Cost control not dealt w ith in detail Functional departments vs. project team Concept of phases milestones matches Stages - but no...

Association for Project Management

The UK-based Association of Project Managers have also produced a 'Body of Knowledge*. Although the APM now sets and administers examinations in project management, at the time that this body of knowledge was formulated, their certification process was based, not on an unseen written examination but on assessing the practitioner's competence. The emphasis of the APM body of knowledge is therefore on defining competencies rather than know ledge areas as such. To this end the APM has categorized...

General introductory books on project management not IS specific

Haynes, Marion E Project management from idea to implementation, Kogan Page belter management skills, London. Kogan Page. 1990. Haynes, Marion E., Project management, rev. edn. A fifty-minute series book, Menlo Park. Calif Crisp Publications, 1996. Weiss. Joseph W., and Roben K. Wysocki. 5-phase project management a practical planning & implementation guide. Reading. Mass Addison-Wesley. 1992. Nickson. David, and Su .y Siddons. Managing projects. Oxford. Made Simple Books...

Getting the project back to target

A contingency plan should, of course, already exist as a result of the risk analysis methods described in Chapter 7. The schedule is not sacrosanct - it is a plan that should be adhered to so long as it is relevant and cost-effective. Almost any project will, at one time or another, be subject to delays and unexpected events. One of the tasks of the project manager is to recognize when this is happening (or. if possible, about to happen) and. with the minimum delay and disruption to the project...

Scheduling resources

Having produced the resource requirements list, the next stage is to map this onto the activity plan to assess the distribution of resources required over the duration of the project. T his is best done by representing the activity plan as a bar chart and using this to produce a resource histogram for each resource. Figure 8.3 illustrates Amanda's activity plan as a bar chart and a resource histogram for analyst-designers. Each activity has been scheduled to start at its earliest start date - a...

Contents

1 Introduction to software project management 1 1.3 Software projects versus other types of project 3 1.4 Activities covered by software project management 3 1.5 Some ways of categorizing software projects 6 1.6 The project as a system 7 1.8 Problems with software projects 9 1.10 Stakeholders 13 I.I I Requirement specification 14 1.12 Information and control in organizations 15 2 Step Wise an overview of project planning 19 2.1 Introduction to Step Wise project planning 19 2.2 Step 0 Select...

Risk analysis

Having identified the risks that might affect our project we need some way of assessing their importance. Some risks will be relatively unimportant (for example, the risk that some of the documentation is delivered a day late), whereas some will be of major significance (such as the risk that the software is delivered late). Some are quite likely to occur (it is quite likely, for example, that one of the software developers in a team will take a few days sick leave during a lengthy project),...

Strategic planning and scope

Chris, and Gordon Stutcley, Information systems - strategy to design. Tutorial guides in computing and information systems 7. London. Chapman & Hall. 1995. Vonk. Roland. Prototyping the effective use of CASE technology. New York. Prentice Hall International. 1990. Gilh. Tom. and Susannah Finzi. Principles of software engineering management, Wokingham. England Reading. Mass Addison-Wesley. 1988. Ould. Martyn. Strategies for software engineering the management of risk and quality, Wiley...

Leadership

When Amanda and Hrigette first took on project management responsibilities, one of their private anxieties was a fear that they would not have enough personal authority - that staff would not take them seriously. leadership is generally taken to mean the ability to intlucncc others in a group to act in a particular way in order to achieve group goals. A leader is not necessarily a good manager or vice versa, because managers have other roles to play, such as those of organizing, planning and...

Design of in idiptition strategy

The steps in this part of the adaptation planning process are outlined in Figure C.9. Having identified the potential risks in the adaptation, counter-measures can now be contemplated. EM prov ides some guidelines as to the kind of measures to be used against certain types of threat, although there is no claim that the adv ice by any means exhausts this subject. With the example of producing German language user documentation, a risk was identified that the base system could change. This could...

Project Management Bodies of Knowledge

The standards and guidelines we have looked at in the preceding appendixes have, to a greater or lesser extent, concentrated on procedure - the actions to he taken in specified circumstances. As we have noted before, one way of looking at the software development process is as an information system in its own right processes take information from various sources, then manipulate and process it to create new information products that are used by other processes. It is clearly in the interests of...

The incremental delivery plan

The content of each increment and the order in which the increments are to be delivered to the users of the system have to be planned at the outset. Basically the same process has to be undertaken as in strategic planning but at a more detailed level where the attention is given to increments of a user application rather than whole applications. The elements of the incremental plan are the system objectives. incremental plan and the open technology plan. The purpose is to give an idea of the...

Conclusions To Software Project Management

estimates are really management targets collect as much information about previous projects as possible use more than one method of estimating top-down approaches will be used at the earlier stages of project planning while bottom-up approaches will be more prominent later on be careful about using other people's historical productivity data as a basis for your estimates, especially if it comes from a different environment (this includes COCOMO ) document your method of doing estimates and...

Step Select project

Chapter 3 discusses This is called Step 0 because in a way it is outside the main project planning project evaluation in more process. Projects are not initiated out of thin air - some activity has to take place detail. before deciding that this project rather than another is worth undertaking. This projcct evaluation may be done on an individual basis or as part of strategic planning. Tabic 2.1 An outline of Step Wise planning activities 1 Identify project scope and objectives I. I Identify...

General books on software and IS project management

M Software project management a practitioner's approach, 2nd edn. London New York. McGraw-Hill. 1995. Yeates. Donald, and James Cadle, Project management for information systems, 2nd edn. London. Pitman Publications. 19 . Ince. Darnel, Helen Sharp, and Mark Woodman, Introduction to software project management and quality assurance. The McGraw-Hill international series in software engineering, London New York. McGraw-Hill. 1993. Brooks. Frederick P The mythical man-month essays on...

Statements of work

The terms 'work breakdown structure' and 'statement of work' (SOW) will be explained later in this section. One of the major differences between BS 6079 and PRINCE 2 is that while PRINCE 2 advocates a product-driven approach to planning, where the products the project has to create are initially identified. BS 6079 uses an activity-based approach, featuring a work breakdown structure (WBS). right from the beginning. T he standard does not put the same heavy emphasis on a Stage structure for...

The project as a system

A project is concerned with creating a new system and or transforming an old one and is itself a system. Systems, subsystems and environments A simple definition of the term system is 'a set of interrelated parts'. A system will normally be part of a larger system and w ill itself comprise subsystems. Outside the system there will be the system's environment. This w ill be made up of things that can affect the system but over w hich the system has no direct control. In the case of Brightmouth...

Activity standard deviations

This standard deviation formula is based on the rationale that there are approximately six standard deviations between the extreme tails of many statistical distributions. A quantitative measure of the degree of uncertainty of an activity duration estimate may be obtained by calculating the standard dev iation s of an activity time, using the formula The activity standard deviation is proportional to the difference between the optimistic and pessimistic estimates, and can be used as a ranking...

Software projects versus other types of project

Many of the techniques of general project management are applicable to software project management, but Fred Brooks pointed out that the products of software projects have certain characteristics that make them different. One way of perceiving software project management is as the process of making visible that which is invisible. Invisibility When a physical artefact such as a bridge or road is being constructed the progress being made can actually be seen. With software, progress is not...

Fixed price per unit delivered contracts

Iliis is often associated w ith function point (FP) counting. The size of the system to be delivered is calculated or estimated at the outset of the project. The size of the system to be delivered might be estimated in lines of code, but I Ps can be more easily and reliably derived from requirements documents. A price per unit is also quoted, The final price is then the unit price multiplied by the number of units. Table 10.1 shows a typical schedule of prices. Table 10.1 A schedule of charges...

Information Systems Examination Board

In 1998. there were around 3000 holders of the ISEB Certificate in Project Management. A personal interest needs to he declared here as one of the authors has been involved as an examiner and moderator with this body. The Information Systems Examination Board (ISEB) is the w ing of the British Computer Society (BCS) that sets and administers examinations to assess professional competence in a number of fields related to information technology and information systems development. These fields...

Chapter

I lists costs and benefits for the proposed Brightmouth HE College payroll system. It is not comprehensive hut illustrates some of the types of items that you should have listed. Costs ami benefits for the Brightmouth College payroll system Development costs software purchase - software cost plus selection and purchasing cost project team employ rnent costs Setup costs training include costs of trainers and operational staff time lost while training staff recruitment computer hardware...

The supply process

This process mirrors the acquisition process, but documents the activities that a supplier would need to undertake in response to the request of a supplier. Figure D.2 outlines the main activities involved. There w ill be occasions where the sequence of activities is not that show n and yet other occasions w hen some of the activities will have to be iterated a number of times. Initiation The process is started when a potential supplier receives an RFP from an acquirer and the supplier decides...

Product revision quality actors

Maintainability The effort required to locate and fix an error in an operational program. Testability The effort required to test a program to ensure it performs its intended function. Flexibility The effort required to modify an operational program. Product transition quality factors Portability The effort required to transfer a program from one hardware configuration and or software system environment to another. Reusability The extent to which a program can be used in other applications....

What Is Brightmouth College In Managing Contracts

The order you put these projects is. of course, to a large degree subjective. Here is 1.1 Examples of one example of a possible ordering. projects 1. Kuilding the Channel Tunnel Almost everybody puts this one first. The huge scale of the task, the relative novelty of the project, all the different specialisms involved and the international nature of the project make it special. 2. Writing an operating system 'This is a prime example of a software development project. 3. Amending a financial...

Projects and activities

Before we try to identify the activities that make up a project it is worth reviewing what we mean by a project and its activities and adding some assumptions that will be relevant when we start to produce an activ ity plan. a project is composed of a number of inter-related activities a project may start when at least one of its activities is ready to start a project will be completed when all of the activities it encompasses have been completed an activity must have a clearly defined start...

Step Identify project infrastructure

Projects are rarely initiated in a vacuum. There is usually some kind of existing infrastructure into which the project can fit. The project leader who does not already know about this structure needs to find out its precise nature. Some of the issues of strategic planning are addressed in Chapter 3. Step 2.1 Identify relationship between the project and strategic planning As well as identifying projects to be carried out. an organization needs to decide the order in which these projects are to...

Using PERT to evaluate the effects of uncertainty

Pert Chart After Forward Pass

PERT was developed to take account of the uncertainty surrounding estimates of task durations. It was developed in an environment of expensive, high-risk and PERT program evaluation and review technique was published in the same year as CPM. Developed for the Fleet Ballistic Missiles Program it is said to have saved considerable time in development ol the Polaris missile. state-of-the-art projects - not that dissimilar to many of today's large software projects. The method is very similar to...

Formulating a network model

The first stage in creating a network model is to represent the activities and their interrelationships as a graph. In CPM we do this by representing activities as links arrowed lines in the graph - the nixies circles representing the events of activities starting and finishing. In Chapter 2 we saw how Amanda used her Product Breakdown to obtain an Case Study Example activity network, figure 6.7 shows the fragment of her network that was discussed in that chapter and Figure 6.8 shows how this...

Activities covered by software project management

Software Project Activities Covered

A software project is concerned not only with the actual writing of software. In fact, where a software application is bought in 'off-the-shelf, there might be no software writing as such. This is still fundamentally a software project because so many of the other elements associated with this type of project are present. Usually, there are three successive processes that bring a new system into being I. The feasibility study This is an investigation to decide whether a prospective project is...

Albrecht function point analysis

This is a top-down method that was devised by Allan Albrecht when he worked for IBM. Albrecht was investigating programming productivity and needed some way to quantify the functional size of programs independently of the programming languages in which they had been coded. He developed the idea of function points lPs . The basis of function point analysis is that computer-based information systems comprise five major components, or external user types in Albrecht s terminology, that are of...

COCOMO a parametric model

Boehm's COCOMO Constructive COst MOdel is often referred to in the literature on software project management, particularly in connection with software estimating. The term COCOMO really refers to a group of models. Bochm originally based his models in the late 1970s on a study of 63 projects. Of these only seven were business systems and so they could be used with applications other than information systems. The basic model was built around the equation Because there is now a newer COCOMO II....

The backward pass

The second stage is to carry out a backward pass to calculate the latest date at which each event may be achieved, and each activity started and finished, without delaying the end dale of the project. The latest date for an event is the latest date by w hich all immediately following activities must be started for the project to be completed on time. In calculating the latest dates, we assume that the latest finish date for the project is the same as the earliest finish date - that is. we wish...

Visualizing progress

Having collected data about project progress, a manager needs some way of presenting that data to greatest effect. In this section, we look at some methods of presenting a picture of the project and its future. Some of these methods such as Gantt charts provide a static picture, a single snap-shot, whereas others such as time-line charts try to show how the project has progressed and changed through lime. One of the simplest and oldest techniques for tracking project progress is the Gantt...