Personal Motivation

Kahler suggests that understanding a person's "home-base" psychological needs (birth), in addition to the phase of life in which he is currently operating (environment), will give rise to an understanding of what motivates the person individually and in teams. Table 6-6 shows motivators for the previous personality structure.

Table 6-6. PCM Motivators

PCM Type

PCM Motivators

Dreamer

Solitude and direction

Time alone to reflect and to be creative

Workaholic

Work recognition: awards, bonuses, pat on the back Structured time and a plan

Reactor

A pleasant environment (both places and people) Comfort and relaxation

Rebel

Frequent interaction with others Personal contact and fun

Persister

Recognition of achievements due to strong commitment to a mission or goal

Promoter

Risk taking High finance

Channels of communication are as important as perceptions for each type—a PCM workaholic would probably rather have "just the facts" than be nurtured.

With a handle on personal motivation, the team manager/leader also discovers what to avoid and what behavior is causing distress and therefore lack of productivity, as illustrated inTable 6-7.

In understanding personal motivation for each team member's performance, individual drivers can be discovered. Does an individual value peer recognition, career path enhancement, financial reward, self-sabotage, or something else?

Several theories relating to motivation in management literature help provide maps to this territory as well. Some of the more useful ones are shown in Table 6-8.^^

A modern project manager must understand the basics of these models for managing motivation in people and organizations. Much information on these models of organizational behavior can be found in general management literature because they are usually part of any

MBA program. See the references for recommended reading.'—''1—1

Table 6-7. Leadership Behaviors

PCM Type

Managers Should Avoid These Behaviors

Or They May See These Reactions

Dreamer

Laissez-faire style Overstimulating environment

Wthdrawal Not finishing tasks

Canceling projects with no logical reason

Criticism of others

Frustration about fairness, money, order, and so on

PCM Type

Managers Should Avoid These Behaviors

Or They May See These Reactions

Reactor

Autocratic style

Overadaptation to others

Pointing out mistakes

Self-doubt

Criticism

Rebel

Restricting to time frames

Negativity

Preaching

Complaints

Blame

Persister

Autocratic style

Crusades

Power plays

Verbal attacks

Redefinition

Righteousness

Promoter

Wishy-washy style

Arguments

Confrontation

Negative drama

Rule breaking

Table 6-8. Models of Individual Motivation

Motivation Model

Brief Description

Creator

Expectancy Theory

An effort-performance relationship exists. People perform if they expect to be rewarded.

Victor Vroom

Path-Goal Model

Clarify the path to a performer's perceived goal, and they will work to achieve it.

Robert House

Goal-Setting Theory

Commitment increases if performers set their own goals.

Edwin Locke

Hawthorne Effect

Just the act of measuring will influence the outcome of a social experiment. When watched, people perform as the watchers expect them to.

Elton Mayo

Force Field Analysis

Status quo is maintained by driving and restraining forces in opposition.

Change agents must identify these and change them to implement any lasting organizational change.

Kurt Lewin

Theory X and Theory Y

Predispositioned attitudes toward people:

Douglas

X: People are inherently lazy and must be forced to work.

McGregor

Y: People will be self-directed and creative if favorably motivated.

Theory Z

Actually, Organization Type Z:

Combines the best of American and Japanese management in a humanistic manner.

William Ouchi

Motivator/Hygiene Theory

Motivator: An element of work that satisfies a performer's needs Hygiene: Factors that must be present for any motivation

Frederick Herzberg

Hierarchy of Needs

People have a needs hierarchy: Physiological (food) Safety (security, shelter) Love (social belonging) Self-esteem (ego) Self-actualization (fulfillment)

Abraham Maslow

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