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1. Identify all the SLCMs that are available to the development project.

2. Identify the attributes that apply to the desired end system and the development environment.

3. Identify any constraints that might be imposed on the selection.

4. Evaluate the various SLCMs based on past experience and organizational capabilities.

5. Select the SLCM that will best satisfy the project attributes and constraints.

Step 2. Compare activities to SLCM requirements. Having selected an SLCM, the project manager performs a detailed mapping of the activities against the SLCM. This involves matching the activities against the major phases of the SLCM. This step provides a checklist to ensure that all activities are mapped and that all SLCM requirements are covered by one or more activities. The easiest way to accomplish this is to take the 1074 map and add columns for each of the major S LCM phases. Using our basic waterfall model, we would add columns titled Requirements, Design, Implementation, Test, Installation and Checkout, and Operation and Maintenance. Figure 3-8 shows this. At each cell in which a 1074 activity is used in a life cycle phase, a check is placed. When all the activities are analyzed to see where (and if) they fit a phase, the table is sorted so that the activities with no phase cell checks are at the bottom. Do not delete them from the table; in this iterative process they may be needed in a later step.

Figure 3-8. Step 2—Compare Activities to SLCM Requirements

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Wrapped into this step are Steps 3 and 4 from 1074. Step 3 is to develop and justify the list of activities not used. Although that is a noble effort, it is usually quite easy in a review session to decide what is in and what is out. Practitioners have found that keeping detailed reasons for not selecting an activity for a specific project does not aid in making this decision for the next project. 1074 Step 4 is to list activities and invocations. The list of activities already exists in the 1074 modified map. Invocations are nothing more than the triggers into the support processes, such as configuration management, that are used in the phase.

Step 3. Place the activities in time sequence. Table 3-2 represents the activities map with dates placed in the phase cell. The order in which activities will be performed will be determined by three major factors:

1. The selected SLCM will dictate an initial ordering of activities. As mapping progresses, the actual order in which activities will be performed will be established. This will usually differ from the original order of the 1074 activities map.

2. Schedule constraints may require the overlapping of activities in the SLCM and may thus impact the ordering. In this case, activities may be mapped for parallel execution rather than for serial execution. This provides the project manager with a first order look at the feasibility of the schedule.

3. The ordering of activities may be impacted by the entry and exit criteria of associated activities. This will be further analyzed in Step 4.

When this is completed, the table is sorted again so that the activities are in date order.

Step 4. Check information flow. The input and output information tables in 1074 specify the information that is to be used and generated by each activity. This step verifies that the information flow into and out of the activities will support the relative order into which they have been mapped. Although it is unlikely that this will cause a major rearrangement or modification of the mapping, it is a necessary check to be sure that all information will be available when and where needed. Figure 3-9 shows this for the Establish Project Environment activity.

Figure 3-9. Step 4—Check Information Flow

Step 5. Assign activity output to deliverables. Each SLCM process requires and defines the format and content of its own set of outputs. These products are the specific artifacts that the SLCM delivers. Note that the term artifact does not imply any particular medium. This step compares the output information that is generated by each activity with the SLCM-required artifacts into which it must go. Once again, the order of the mapping, this time from Step 4, might have to be modified. If a particular artifact, as specified by the selected SLCM, is to be created at a particular point in the development schedule, all the activities that contribute information to be recorded in that document must have had an opportunity to generate it.

Step 6. Add life cycle support processes. This step in 1074 is discussed as adding an organizational process asset (OPA): 1074 defines OPAs as "artifacts that defines some portion of an organization's software project environment." Practitioners define the life cycle support processes as the project-specific processes based on a project's SLC and the integral and project management processes used by the organization. These integral processes include configuration management, metrics, quality assurance, risk reduction, and the activities of estimating, planning, and training. These are already included in the 1074 map and have been addressed once. The purpose of this step is to ensure that all phases of the SLC have adequately accounted for the effort required by the project management and integral process activities. This step is a further sanity check on the project estimates and schedule.

After Step 6 is completed, the project and organization will have in place an SLC process. Figure 3-10 shows how the information used in the SLC process definition just described fits within an organization. The processes on the left side of the figure are all the activities listed on the 1074 map. As a project manager, you have used this map, referenced process improvement models such as the Software Engineering Institutes' Capability Maturity Model and the selected life cycle model, to derive your SLCM. From this model, you derived the specific subset of the model for your project's SLC. After that, you begin to turn activity artifacts into deliverables such as your project's software development plan.

Figure 3-10. Organizational Relationship of SLCM

Figure 3-10. Organizational Relationship of SLCM

Table 3-2. Step 3—Place the Activities in Time Sequence

Life Cycle Phases

Category

Process

Activity

Requirements

Design

Code

Test

Implement

1. Software Life Cycle Model Process

A. Software Life Cycle Model

1. Identify Candidate SLC Models

1-Jan

Management

Processes

B. Project Monitoring and Control

1. Analyze Risks

15-Jan

Management

Processes

B. Project Monitoring and Control

2. Perform

Contingency

Planning

21-Jan

1. Software Life Cycle Model Process

A. Software Life Cycle Model

2. Select Project Model

1-Feb

Life Cycle Phases

Category

Process

Activity

Requirements

Design

Code

Test

Management

Quality

Management

1. Plan Software Quality Management

1-Mar

Management

Quality

Management

2. Define Metrics

15-Mar

Management

Processes

A. Project Initiation

4. Plan Project Management

15-Apr

Management

Processes

A. Project Initiation

3. Establish

Project

Environment

30-Apr

Management

Processes

B. Project Monitoring and Control

5. Implement Problem Reporting Method

30-Apr

Management

Processes

A. Project Initiation

1. Map Activities to SLC Model

1-May

Management

Processes

Project

Information

1-Jun

Management

Quality

Management

4. Identify Quality Improvement Needs

15-Jul

Management

Processes

B. Project Monitoring and Control

3. Manage the Project

Management

Processes

B. Project Monitoring and Control

4. Retain Records

Life Cycle Phases

Category

Process

Activity

Requirements

Design

Code

Test

Management

Quality

Software

Quality

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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