FIROB Instrument

Another tool that requires certification to administer is the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Measuring Behavior (FIRO-B), a multiple-choice questionnaire developed by William C. Schutz, Ph.D. It is an efficient measure of interpersonal relationships, and it has been

normalized by data from tens of thousands of individuals across 15 occupations.'—1. It measures three fundamental dimensions of interpersonal relationships in a very short period of time. Most behavioral test instruments tend to ask a lot of questions, so the brevity of the FIRO-B is a welcome relief from "test fatigue."

According to Schutz, all humans possess three basic needs, to a greater or lesser degree. They are the needs fotnclusion, control, and [31

affection.1—1 Inclusion is the inner drive "to establish and maintain a satisfactory relation with people with respect to interaction and association." It has to do with being "in" or "out." A person may need inclusion from others or might need to reach out to others, expressing inclusion. Control is "the need to establish and maintain a satisfactory relation with people with respect to control and power." It has to do with being on top or on the bottom. As with inclusion, it works in two directions, but a high need for both getting and giving power are not usually found in the same person. The third need of the triad is "the need to establish and maintain a satisfactory relationship with others with respect to love and affection." It has to do with being close or far. As shown in Table 6-2, in the FIRO-B Model, the six inner needs are the desires of a well-balanced individual.

rable 6-2. The FIRO-B

Model

Direction

Inclusion

Control

Affection

Wants from others

Acceptance

Guidance

Closeness

Expresses to others

Interest

Leadership

Liking

Schutz claims that the needs profile of a person is shaped by that person's parents or caregivers in childhood, and these needs are not likely to change in a lifetime.

Applying the FIRO-B postulate of compatibility to teams helps determine which individuals will work well together and which ones will clash. In some cases, it is desirable to have team members who possess similar traits (two people are compatible if both express and desire little affection); in other cases, it is best to mix complementary traits (it might not work if two people on the same team have a high need for control but they have different goals). Schutz's principle of group interaction is that each of the three needs comes to prominence at different points of the group's life cycle:

The typical sequence is: inclusion^^^ control^^^ affection. During initial meetings, members try to determine where they fit and how much they're willing to invest in the group. This is the inclusion phase. As these primary identity issues are resolved, the emphasis switches to questions of control. What are the ground rules? Who will be the leader? How much responsibility will be shared? When this struggle is resolved, the group slides into the affection phase, which centers on positive attraction, pairing, jealousy, and hostility... this sequence recurs in groups that [41

continue to meet.1—1

Later, we'll see that this sequence closely follows a popular model of team formation behavior.

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Project Management Made Easy

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