Figure The Path to Modified Group Behavior

Source: Hersey, Paul, and Kenneth H. Blanchard (1993). Management of Organizational Behavior, 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice Hall.

Recognize that fear of change provides much of the resistance in most organizations. Change is scary because it involves the unknown and leaves the comfort of the status quo. Kurt Lewin proposed a model implementing cultural changes in an organization called Force Field Analysis (see Figure 13-16). The model basically says that there are a set of restraining forces and a set of driving forces that are in equilibrium in any cultural situation. To implement a change, you must insightfully inspect the culture to identify these forces and then take specific actions that reduce the restraining forces and strengthen the driving forces. Often this just means rewarding the behavior that you really want and not rewarding what you don't want. Rewards could be material or social, but they must directly reinforce the desired behavior. Mandating organizational changes without changing the reward structure guarantees failure. People instinctively know where their bread is buttered.

Figure 13-16. Force Field Analysis Model

Figure 13-16. Force Field Analysis Model

Lastly, recognize that change is, by nature, disruptive. We believe that organizational changes will lead to a better situation than before the change. Critics often point to poorer performance amid the confusion of a change implementation and say that things are worse. They are usually right, but with some patience things usually do get better. As illustrated in Figure 13-17, change implementation is usually not a linear path to better performance. All change is disruptive, but it usually leads to better performance over time.

Figure 13-17. Change Implementation Effects are Nonlinear

Figure 13-17. Change Implementation Effects are Nonlinear

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Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

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