These are people who have a stake or interest in the project. It is important that they be identified as early as possible, because you need to set up adequate communication channels with them right from the start. The project leader also has to be aware that not everybody who is involved with a project has the same motivation and objectives. The end users might, for instance, be concerned about the ease of use of the system while their managers might be interested in the staff savings the new system will allow.

Stakeholders might be internal to the project team, external to the project team but in the same organization, or totally external to the organization.

• Internal to the project team This means that they will be under the direct managerial control of the project leader.

• External to the project team but within the same organization For example, the project leader might need the assistance of the information

B. W. Boehm and R. Ross Theory W Software Project Management: Principles and Examples", in B.W. Boehm (ed.) Software Risk Management.

management group in order to add some additional data types to a database or the assistance of the users to carry out systems testing. Here the commitment of the people involved has to be negotiated.

• External to both the project team and the organization External stakeholders might be customers (or users) who will benefit from the system that the project implements or contractors who will carry out work for the project. One feature of the relationship with these people is that it is likely to be based on a legally binding contract.

Within each of the general categories there w ill be various groups. For example, there will be different types of user with different types of interests.

Different types of stakeholder might have different objectives and one of the jobs of the successful project leader is to recognize these different interests and to be able to reconcile them. It should therefore come as no surprise that the project leader needs to be a good communicator and negotiator. Boehm and Ross proposed a 'Theory W' of software project management where the manager concentrates on creating situations where all parties involved in a project benefit from it and therefore have an interest in its success. (The 'W* stands for Everyone a Winner.)

Exercise 1.8

Identify the stakeholders in the Brightmouth College payroll project.

These are sometimes called non-functional requirements.

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Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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