Workflows of the Process

Most process descriptions use sequences of £

Key Points a The activities of the process are organized into seven major workflows: management, environment, requirements, design, implementation, assessment, and deployment.

A These activities are performed concurrently, with varying levels of effort and emphasis as a project progresses through the life cycle.

a The management workflow is concerned primarily with three disciplines: planning, project control, and organization.

I activities as their primary representation format. Sequentially oriented process descriptions are simple to understand, represent, plan, and conduct. From an individual's point of view, all activities are inherently sequential. However, simplistic activity sequences are not realistic on software projects that are team efforts. Such efforts may include many teams, making progress on many artifacts that must be synchronized, cross-checked, homogenized, merged, and integrated. The distributed nature of the software process and its subordinate workflows is the primary source of management complexity.

One of the more subtle flaws in the conventional software process was in presenting the life-cycle macroprocess as a sequential thread of activities, from requirements analysis to design to code to test to delivery. In an abstract way, successful projects did implement this progression, but the boundaries between the phases were fuzzy and were accepted as such by nonadversarial stakeholders. Unsuccessful projects, on the other hand, typically got mired in striving for crisp boundaries between phases. For example, a typical project team might have pursued 100% frozen requirements baselines before transitioning to design, or might have tried to write a fully detailed design documentation before transitioning to coding. As a result, excessive effort would have been expended in minutia while progress on the important engineering decisions slowed or even stopped.

A modern process avoids naming the life-cycle phases after the predominant activities. The phase names—inception, elaboration, construction, and transition— specify the state of the project rather than a sequence of activities as in the waterfall model. The intent is to recognize explicitly the continuum of activities in all phases and avoid the inference that there is a sequential progression from requirements to design to code to test to delivery.

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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