Team Size

Architecture: small team of software engineers Applications: as many as needed Large and diverse as needed


Deliverable, useful function Tested baselines Warranted quality


Implement, test, and maintain Target technology


Construction and transition

In the conventional process, the minimal level of automation that supported the overhead activities of planning, project control, and change management led to labor-intensive workflows and a diseconomy of scale. This lack of management automation was as true for multiple-project, line-of-business organizations as it was for individual projects. Next-generation environments and infrastructures are moving to automate and standardize many of these management activities, thereby requiring a lower percentage of effort for overhead activities as scale increases.

Reusing common processes across multiple iterations of a single project, multiple releases of a single product, or multiple projects in an organization also relieves many of the sources of diseconomy of scale. Critical sources of scrap and rework are eliminated by applying precedent experience and mature processes. Establishing trustworthy plans based on credible project performance norms and using reliable components reduce other sources of scrap and rework. While most reuse of components results in reducing the size of the production effort, the reuse of processes, tools, and experience has a direct impact on the economies of scale.

Another important difference in this cost model is that architectures and applications have different units of mass (scale versus size) and are representations of the solution space. Scale might be measured in terms of architecturally significant elements (classes, components, processes, nodes), and size might be measured in SLOC or megabytes of executable code. These measures differ from measures of the problem space such as discrete requirements or use cases. The problem space description certainly drives the definition of the solution space. However, there are many solutions to any given problem, as illustrated in Figure 16-2, each with a different value proposition. Cost is a key discriminator among potential solutions. Cost estimates that are more accurate and more precise can be derived from specific solutions to problems. Therefore, the cost estimation model must be governed by the basic parameters of a

Figure 16-2. Differentiating potential solutions through cost estimation
Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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