Glossary

Adaptability The rework trend over time

Architecture The significant structure and behavior of a system, including all engineering specifications necessary to determine a complete bill of materials with a high level of confidence Architecture first An approach that requires a demonstrable balance to be achieved among the driving requirements, the architecturally significant design decisions, and the life-cycle plans before the resources for full-scale development are committed Artifact A discrete, cohesive collection of information, typically developed and reviewed as a single entity Assessment workflow The activities associated with assessing the trends in process and product quality

Breakage The average extent of change, which is the amount of software baseline that needs rework; measured in source lines of code, function points, components, subsystems, files, or other units Budgeted cost The planned expenditure profile over the life cycle of the project Business case Cost, revenue, schedule, and profit expectations

Change management Tracking changes to the technical artifacts in order to maintain control and understand the true technical progress and quality trends toward delivering an acceptable end product or interim release Change traffic The number of software change orders opened and closed over the life cycle

Component A cohesive unit of software, either in source code or executable format, with a defined interface and behavior

Component-based development A management and engineering paradigm that emphasizes the use of existing components over the development of custom components

Configurable process A life-cycle framework suitable for a broad spectrum of applications

Configuration baseline A named collection of software components and supporting documentation that is subject to change management and is upgraded, maintained, tested, statused, and obsolesced as a unit

Configuration Control Board A team of people that functions as the decision authority on the content of configuration baselines

Construction phase The third phase of the life cycle, focused on the construction of a usable product that is mature enough to transition to the user community

Conventional process A waterfall software development process that transitions sequentially from requirements analysis to design to coding to unit testing to integration testing to system verification

Demonstration A set of software components that executes threads of relevant use cases

Deployment artifacts Project-specific documents for transitioning the product into operational status (for example, computer system operations manuals, software installation manuals, plans and procedures for cutover from a legacy system, site surveys)

Deployment set Machine-processable languages and associated files

Deployment workflow The activities associated with transitioning the end products to the user

Design model Design notations (for example, UML) at varying levels of abstraction to represent the components of the solution space and their identities, attributes, static relationships, dynamic interactions, and so forth

Design set Models of the solution space

Design workflow The activities associated with modeling the solution and evolving the architecture and design artifacts

Development environment A full suite of development tools needed to support all the various process workflows and round-trip engineering

Elaboration phase The second phase of the life cycle, focused on the elaboration of an architecture baseline consistent with a production plan and a requirements vision

Engineering stage The early life-cycle activities that evolve the plans, the requirements, and the architecture together, resolving the development risks; typically operates with a diseconomy of scale

Environment The process automation support for producing the life-cycle artifacts; should include requirements management, visual modeling, document automation, host/target programming tools, automated regression testing, and continuous and integrated change management and defect tracking Environment workflow The activities associated with automating the production of life-cycle artifacts and evolving the maintenance environment Evolving levels of detail The evolution of project artifacts commensurate with the current level of requirements and architecture understanding Executable code Machine language notations, executable software, and the build scripts, installation scripts, and executable target-specific data necessary to use the product in its target environment Expenditure profile Cost expended over time

Implementation set Human-readable programming language and associated source files

Implementation workflow The activities associated with programming the components and evolving the implementation and deployment set artifacts Inception phase The first phase of the life cycle, focused on the inception of a product vision and its corresponding business case Initial operational capability milestone A review conducted late in the construction phase to assess the readiness of the software to begin the transition into customer or user sites and to authorize the start of system qualification testing Inspection A human review of an artifact

Iteration A distinct sequence of activities within a single phase, resulting in a release; includes a well-defined plan and a well-documented result Iterative life-cycle process A process that refines the problem understanding, an effective solution, and an effective plan over several iterations to ensure a balanced treatment of all stakeholder objectives

Life cycle One complete pass through the four phases (inception, elaboration, construction, and transition); the span of time between the beginning of the inception phase and the end of the transition phase Life-cycle architecture milestone A review conducted at the end of the elaboration phase to demonstrate an executable architecture to all stakeholders and achieve agreement on the detailed plan for the construction phase Life-cycle objectives milestone A review conducted at the end of the inception phase to present a recommendation to all stakeholders on how to proceed with development; includes a plan, estimated cost and schedule, and expected benefits and cost savings

Maintenance environment A mature version of the development environment

Maintenance stage The evolution of the software product after its initial development life cycle

Major milestone Systemwide event held at the end of each development phase to provide visibility to systemwide issues, synchronize the management and engineering perspectives, and verify that the goals of the phase have been achieved Management set Artifacts for capturing the project plans, intermediate states, and histories

Management workflow The activities associated with planning and controlling the life-cycle process and ensuring win conditions for all stakeholders Maturity MTBF trend over time

Mean time between failures (MTBF) The average usage time between type 0 (critical) software faults

Minor milestone Iteration-focused event conducted to review the content of a given iteration in detail and to authorize continued work Model-based notation Semantically rich graphical and textual design notations (for example, UML)

Modern process An iterative software development process that develops an architecture first, then evolves useful releases of capability within that architecture until an acceptable product release is achieved Modularity The average breakage trend over time

Objective quality control Life-cycle assessment of the process and all intermediate products using well-defined measures derived directly from the evolving engineering artifacts and integrated into all activities and teams Organizational policy An artifact that defines the life cycle and the process primitives: major milestones, intermediate artifacts, engineering repositories, metrics, and roles and responsibilities

Phase The span of time between two major milestones of the process, during which a well-defined set of objectives is met, artifacts are completed, and the decision is made whether to move into the next phase Product The subset of deployment artifacts delivered to end users Product release milestone A review conducted at the end of the transition phase to assess the completion of the software and its transition to the support organization, if applicable

Production stage The late life-cycle activities to construct usable versions of capability within the context of the baseline plans, requirements, and architecture developed in the engineering stage; should operate with an economy of scale in a modern process Progress Work completed over time

Project Review Authority The single individual responsible for ensuring that a software project complies with all organizational and business unit software policies, practices, and standards Prototype A release that is not necessarily subjected to change management and configuration control

Prototyping environment An architecture testbed for prototyping project architectures to evaluate trade-offs during the inception and elaboration phases of the life cycle

Release A set of artifacts that is the object of evaluation at a milestone Release description An artifact that captures the result of release baselines Release specification An artifact that contains the scope, plan, and objectives of release baselines

Requirements model Requirements notations (for example, UML) at varying levels of abstraction to represent the components of the problem space and their identities, attributes, static relationships, dynamic interactions, and so forth Requirements set Organized text and models of the problem space Requirements workflow The activities associated with analyzing the problem space and evolving the requirements artifacts Rework The average cost of change, which is the effort to analyze, resolve, and retest all changes to software baselines Risk An on-going or anticipated concern that has a significant probability of adversely affecting the success of major milestones Round-trip engineering The environment support necessary to automate and synchronize engineering information in different formats (for example, requirements specifications, design models, source code, executable code, test cases)

Software architecture description Design model views that have structural and behavioral information sufficient to establish a bill of materials that includes quantity and specification of primitive parts and materials, labor, and other direct costs

Software change order The atomic unit of software work that is authorized to create, modify, or obsolesce components within a configuration baseline Software change order database A persistent collection of discrete baseline change descriptions

Software development plan A project-specific process instance Software Engineering Environment Authority The person or group responsible for automating the organization's process, maintaining the organization's standard environment, training project teams to use the environment, and maintaining organization-wide reusable assets

Software Engineering Process Authority The person or group responsible for maintaining the organization's process and facilitating process guidance to and from project practitioners Source code Programming language notation that represents the tangible implementation of components and their forms, interfaces, and dependency relationships Stability The relationship between opened versus closed software change orders Staffing Headcount levels

Stage A portion of the software life cycle with a relatively homogeneous economic model

Stakeholder The representative decision authority in each of the organizations with a stake in the outcome of a project Status assessment Periodic events to provide management with frequent and regular insight into the progress being made

Team dynamics Staffing additions and attrition over time

Transition phase The fourth phase of the life cycle, focused on the transition of the product to the user community type 0 software change order Critical failures or showstopper software problems that have an impact on the usability of the software in its primary use cases type 1 software change order A bug or defect that either does not impair the usefulness of the system or can be worked around type 2 software change order A change that is an enhancement rather than a response to a defect type 3 software change order A change that is caused by an update to the requirements

User manual The reference documentation necessary to support the delivered software

Vision statement The view of the product to be developed in a format that is understandable and relevant to all stakeholders

Work The effort to be accomplished to complete a certain set of tasks Work breakdown structure The planning framework; a project decomposition into units of work from which cost, artifacts, and activities can be allocated and tracked Workflow A thread of cohesive and mostly sequential activities

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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