Contents

List of Figures xiii

List of Tables xvii

Foreword xxi

Preface xxiii part i SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT RENAISSANCE 1

chapter i Conventional Software Management 5

1.1 The Waterfall Model 6

1.1.1 In Theory 6

1.1.2 In Practice 11

1.2 Conventional Software Management Performance 17

chapter 2 Evolution of Software Economics 21

2.1 Software Economics 21

2.2 Pragmatic Software Cost Estimation 26

chapter 3 Improving Software Economics 31

3.1 Reducing Software Product Size 33

3.1.1 Languages 34

3.1.2 Object-Oriented Methods and Visual Modeling 36

3.1.3 Reuse 38

3.1.4 Commercial Components 39

3.2 Improving Software Processes 40

3.3 Improving Team Effectiveness 43

3.4 Improving Automation through Software Environments 46

3.5 Achieving Required Quality 48

3.6 Peer Inspections: A Pragmatic View 51

chapter 4 The Old Way and the New 55

4.1 The Principles of Conventional Software Engineering 55

4.2 The Principles of Modern Software Management 63

4.3 Transitioning to an Iterative Process 66

part n A SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT PROCESS FRAMEWORK 69

chapter 5 Life-Cycle Phases 73

5.1 Engineering and Production Stages 74

5.2 Inception Phase 76

5.3 Elaboration Phase 77

5.4 Construction Phase 79

5.5 Transition Phase 80

chapter Ă© Artifacts of the Process 83

6.1 The Artifact Sets 84

6.1.1 The Management Set 85

6.1.2 The Engineering Sets 86

6.1.3 Artifact Evolution over the Life Cycle 92

6.1.4 Test Artifacts 93

6.2 Management Artifacts 96

6.3 Engineering Artifacts 103

6.4 Pragmatic Artifacts 105

chapter 7 Model-Based Software Architectures 109

7.1 Architecture: A Management Perspective 110

7.2 Architecture: A Technical Perspective Ill chapter 8 Workflows of the Process 117

8.1 Software Process Workflows 118

8.2 Iteration Workflows 121

chapter 9 Checkpoints of the Process 125

9.1 Major Milestones 126

9.2 Minor Milestones 132

9.3 Periodic Status Assessments 133

CONTENTS iX

part in SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT DISCIPLINES 135

chapter 10 Iterative Process Planning 139

10.1 Work Breakdown Structures 139

10.1.1 Conventional WBS Issues 140

10.1.2 Evolutionary Work Breakdown Structures 142

10.2 Planning Guidelines 146

10.3 The Cost and Schedule Estimating Process ., 149

10.4 The Iteration Planning Process 150

10.5 Pragmatic Planning 153

chapter ii Project Organizations and Responsibilities 155

11.1 Line-of-Business Organizations 156

11.2 Project Organizations 158

11.3 Evolution of Organizations 165

chapter 12 Process Automation 167

12.1 Tools: Automation Building Blocks 168

12.2 The Project Environment 172

12.2.1 Round-Trip Engineering 173

12.2.2 Change Management 174

12.2.3 Infrastructures 181

12.2.4 Stakeholder Environments 184

chapter 13 Project Control and Process Instrumentation 187

13.1 The Seven Core Metrics 188

13.2 Management Indicators 190

13.2.1 Work and Progress 190

13.2.2 Budgeted Cost and Expenditures 191

13.2.3 Staffing and Team Dynamics : 195

13.3 Quality Indicators 196

13.3.1 Change Traffic and Stability 196

13.3.2 Breakage and Modularity 197

13.3.3 Rework and Adaptability 197

13.3.4 MTBF and Maturity 198

13.4 Life-Cycle Expectations 199

13.5 Pragmatic Software Metrics 201

13.6 Metrics Automation 202

chapter 14 Tailoring the Process 209

14.1 Process Discriminants 209

14.1.1 Scale 210

14.1.2 Stakeholder Cohesion or Contention 214

14.1.3 Process Flexi bility or Rigor 215

14.1.4 Process Maturity 215

14.1.5 Architectural Risk 217

14.1.6 Domain Experience 217

14.2 Example: Small-Scale Project versus Large-Scale Project 218

part iv LOOKING FORWARD 221

chapter 15 Modern Project Profiles 225

15.1 Continuous Integration 226

15.2 Early Risk Resolution 227

15.3 Evolutionary Requirements 228

15.4 Teamwork among Stakeholders 229

15.5 Top 10 Software Management Principles 231

15.6 Software Management Best Practices 232

chapter 16 Next-Generation Software Economics 237

16.1 Next-Generation Cost Models 237

16.2 Modern Software Economics 242

chapter 17 Modern Process Transitions 247

17.1 Culture Shifts 248

17.2 Denouement 251

part v CASE STUDIES AND BACKUP MATERIAL 255

appendix a The State of the Practice in Software Management 259

appendix b The C0C0M0 Cost Estimation Model 265

B.l COCOMO 266

B.2 Ada COCOMO 269

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