Stepwise Project In Software Project Management1

1 Introduction to software project management 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 What is a project? 2

1.3 Software projects versus other types of project 3

1.4 Activities covered by software project management 3

1.5 Some ways of categorizing software projects 6

1.6 The project as a system 7

1.7 What is management? 8

1.8 Problems with software projects 9

1.9 Management control 11

1.10 Stakeholders 13

1.11 Requirement specification 14

1.12 Information and control in organizations 15

1.13 Conclusion 17

1.14 Further exercises 18

2 Step Wise: an overview of project planning 19

2.1 Introduction to Step Wise project planning 19

2.2 Step 0: Select project 20

2.3 Step 1: Identify project scope and objectives 22

2.4 Step 2: Identify project infrastructure 24

2.5 Step 3: Analyse project characteristics 27

2.6 Step 4: Identify project products and activities 28

2.7 Step 5: Estimate effort for each activity 32

2.8 Step 6: Identify activity risks 32

2.9 Step 7: Allocate resources 33

2.10 Step 8: Review/publicize plan 34

2.11 Steps 9 and 10: Execute plan and Lower levels of planning 35

2.12 Conclusion 35

2.13 Further Exercises 36

3 Project evaluation 37

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Strategic assessment 38

3.3 Technical assessment 40

3.4 Cost-benefit analysis

3.5 Cash flow forecasting

3.6 Cost-benefit evaluation techniques

3.7 Risk evaluation

3.8 Conclusion

3.9 Further exercises

4 Selection of an appropriate project approach

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Choosing technologies

4.3 Technical plan contents list

4.4 Choice of process models

4.5 Structured methods

4.6 Rapid application development

4.7 The waterfall model

4.8 The V-process model

4.9 The spiral model

4.10 Software prototyping

4.11 Other ways of categorizing prototypes

4.12 Tools

4.13 A prototyping example

4.14 Incremental delivery

4.15 An incremental example

4.16 Selecting the most appropriate process model

4.17 Conclusion

4.18 Further exercises

5 Software effort estimation

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Where are estimates done?

5.3 Problems with over- and under-estimates

5.4 The basis for software estimating

5.5 Software effort estimation techniques

5.6 Expert judgement

5.7 Estimating by analogy

5.8 Albrecht function point analysis

5.9 Function points Mark II

5.10 Object points

5.11 A procedural code-oriented approach

5.12 COCOMO: a parametric model

5.13 Conclusion

5.14 Additional exercises

43 50 55 55

57 59 63

66 67 67

73 76

77 77

79 81 82

88 89 92 94

8.8 Publishing the resource schedule

8.9 Cost schedules

8.10 The scheduling sequence

8.11 Conclusion

8.12 Further exercises

9 Monitoring and control

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Creating the framework

9.3 Collecting the data

9.4 Visualizing progress

9.5 Cost monitoring

9.6 Earned Value

9.7 Prioritizing monitoring

9.8 Getting the project back to target

9.9 Change control

9.10 Conclusions

9.11 Further exercises

10 Managing contracts

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Types of contract

10.3 Stages in contract placement

10.4 Typical terms of a contract

10.5 Contract management

10.6 Acceptance

10.7 Summary

10.8 Further exercises

11 Managing people and organizing teams

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Understanding behaviour

11.3 Organizational behaviour: a background

11.4 Selecting the right person for the job

11.5 Instruction in the best methods

11.6 Motivation

11.7 Working in groups

11.8 Becoming a team

11.9 Decision making

11.10 Leadership

11.11 Organizational structures

11.12 Conclusion

11.13 Further exercises

165 167 167

169 169 173 175

186 188 190

192 198 203 206 208 208 208

12 Software quality 235

12.1 Introduction 235

12.2 The place of software quality in project planning 236

12.3 The importance of software quality 237

12.4 Defining software quality 237

12.5 ISO 9126 241

12.6 Practical software quality measures 245

12.7 Product versus process quality management 246

12.8 External standards 248

12.9 Techniques to help enhance software quality 252

12.10 Conclusions 258

12.11 Further exercises 258

13 Small projects 261

13.1 Introduction 261

13.2 Some problems with student projects 261

13.3 Content of a project plan 264

13.4 Conclusions 267

A PRINCE 2 - an overview 269

A. 1 Introduction to PRINCE 2 269

A.2 The components of PRINCE 2 269

A.3 PRINCE planning technique 270

A.4 PRINCE 2 project organization 271

A.5 Project Stages 273

A.6 Project procedures 273

A.7 Directing a project 275

A.8 Starting up a project 275

A.9 Initiating the project 275

A. 10 Controlling a stage 276

A. 11 Managing product delivery 278

A. 12 Managing stage boundaries 279

A. 13 Closing the project 280

B BS 6079:1996 - an overview 281

B.l Introduction 281 B.2 The planning process 285 B.3 BS 6079 planning steps 286 B.4 Project control 287

B.5 Supporting techniques 287

C Euromethod - an overview 289

C. 1 The aims of Euromethod 289 C.2 The basic Euromethod model 289

C.3 An overview of the EM acquisition process 292

C.4 Acquisition goal definition 292

C.5 Acquisition planning 293

C.6 Procurement 295

C.7 Adaptation planning 295

C.8 Method bridging 300

C.9 Conclusions 301

D ISO 12207 - an overview 303

D.l Introduction 303 D.2 The ISO 12207 approach to software life cycle data 303 D.3 The ISO 12207 approach to software life cycle processes 304 D.4 The acquisition process 305 D.5 The supply process 308

D.6 The development process 309

E Project Management Bodies of Knowledge 315

E.l Introduction 315 E.2 Project Management Institute 316 E.3 Australian Institute of Project Management 319 E.4 Association for Project Management 320 E.5 UK National Vocational Qualifications 322 E.6 Information Systems Examination Board 324

F Answer pointers 327

Further reading 367

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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