Skd

WEEKS AFTER GO AHEAD

WEEKS AFTER GO AHEAD

1 CONTRACT NEGOTIATED

6 SHORT LEAD

2 CONTRACT SIGNED

PROCUREMENT

3 LONG LEAD

7 MATERIAL

PROCUREMENT

SPECIFICATIONS

4 MANUFACTURING

9 MANUFACTURING PLANS

SCHEDULE

9 START-UP

5 BILL OF MATERIALS

Figure 13-5. Partial interrelationship chart.

Figure 13-5. Partial interrelationship chart.

Unfortunately, the upper portion of Figure 13-7 does not indicate the costs attributed to the status of the three projects. By plotting the total program costs against the same time axis (as shown in Figure 13-7), a comparison between cost and performance can be made. From the upper section of Figure 13-7 it is impossible to tell the current program cost position. From the lower section, however, it becomes evident that the program is heading for a cost overrun, possibly due to project 1. It is generally acceptable to have the same shading technique

Figure 13-6. Grouped bar chart for performance comparison.
Figure 13-7. Cost and performance tracking schedule.

represent different situations, provided that clear separation between the shaded regions appears, as in Figure 13-7.

Another common means for comparing activities or projects is through the use of step arrangement bar charts. Figure 13-8 shows a step arrangement bar chart for a cost percentage breakdown of the five projects included within a pro-

Figure 13-8. Step arrangement bar chart for total cost as a percentage of the five program projects.

gram. Figure 13-8 can also be used for tracking, by shading in certain portions of the steps that identify each project. This is not normally done, however, since this type of step arrangement tends to indicate that each step must be completed before the next step can begin.

Bar charts need not be represented horizontally. Figure 13-9 indicates the comparison between the 1989 and 1991 costs for the total program and raw materials. Again, care must be taken to make proper use of shading techniques. Three-dimensional vertical bar charts are often the most beautiful to behold. Figure 13-10 shows a typical three-dimensional bar chart for direct and indirect labor and material cost breakdowns.

Bar charts can be made quite colorful and appealing to the eye by combining them with other graphic techniques. Figure 13-11 shows a quantitative-pictorial bar chart for the distribution of total program costs. Figure 13-12 shows the same cost distribution as in Figure 13-11, but represented with the commonly used pie technique. Figure 13-13 illustrates how two quantitative bar charts can be used side by side to create a quick comparison. The right-hand side shows the labor hour percentages. Figure 13-13 works best if the scale of each axis is the same; otherwise the comparisons may appear distorted when, in fact, they are not.

The figures shown in this section have been previously used by the author for customer interchange meetings and do not, by any means, represent the only method of presented data in bar chart format. Several other methods exist, some of which are shown in the sections that follow.

Figure 13-9. Cost comparison, 1989 versus 1991.
Figure 13-10. Direct and indirect material and labor cost breakdowns for all programs per year.
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