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Reviewing Project Ideas

Reviewing ideas that come from within the organization can provide insights into efficiencies and help the organization create best-use practices. Many times employees who are using the applications on a day-to-day basis have insight and recommendations on how to better streamline processes. Employees may request that screens be simplified, that additional information be savable, or that records be easily sorted by specific fields. Customers may call salespeople asking for information in the corporate database that can be made directly accessible to customers, thus streamlining the sales job. Many times departments within a company become frustrated with an existing process and go around the system, purchasing new equipment and software to better perform their job. The PC is the most visible example of this. In the 1980s, PCs entered most companies through the backdoor. When employees had

Ways Of Managing Consultants

Because IT managers are ultimately responsible for the success or failure of a project, they must thoroughly document a project's history in case the project fails. When the heat rises because of a failed IT project, facts can sometimes get lost in the scramble to place blame. Consultants have experience in dealing with projects in difficulty and they can be adroit in defending themselves. Also, consultants probably have a better set of sales skills than many IT managers and can use those selling skills to bolster their position in the event of difficulty.

Understanding Project Life Cycles

On many projects, where dates have been preset either by sales executives or senior corporate stakeholders, project managers often do not have the luxury of changing the fixed end date. Hence, how do you meet a fixed end date Would a System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) or a Rapid Application Development (RAD) approach work better for you (i.e., incremental versus an iterative approach)

Building the Order Entry Sequence Diagram

We know that the first thing the actor (in this case the Sales Representative) will have to do is make a request to the retrieve the record for a customer who has just phoned in to place an order. This request will be made to the Customers object via the Interface object. There is, as we know the possibility that the customer may not exist in our Customers object or that their details may need amending. This is shown on the diagram as a dotted line from the Customers object back to itself. If this is indeed the case, we know that the flow of events will be somewhat more complicated than shown in this diagram. The Customers component then passes the CustomerlD onto the Orders object, as this object will need to know which customer this Orders belongs to. The Orders object will also need to create an OrderlD. Once the Customers object has returned the details about a particular customer, the Sales Representative requests the user interface to get products that belong to a certain...

Form in Many Guises

In our example, the Order Entry form allowed the Sales Representative to add orders, but not to edit or delete them. This same form could also provide the ability to edit an order for someone logged in as a Sales Manager. We can create one application, which presents each user with forms that are appropriate for the tasks they need to perform. Each form will provide the actor with everything they need to complete a task in the most efficient manner possible. In our example, the Sales Representative is allowed to create an order, but not to delete or modify them. The Sales Representative is also allowed to create and modify customers, but not delete them. The Sales Manager, on the other hand, can modify and delete the orders and delete customers. It makes sense that the Sales Manager uses the same form to edit and delete orders as the Sales Representative uses to create them, as both of them will require the same information to perform their task, i.e. order details and customer...

Creating a Prototype User Interface

To make our GUI truly user-friendly interface, we must tailor it to the needs of the user and ensure that the processes they follow require as few steps as possible. To illustrate this, let's think about designing a form that the Sales Representative will use to enter an order when a customer phones in. Rather than jumping straight in and designing a GUI, we need first look at the sequence diagram for this task. This will show us exactly what steps the Sales Representative has to carry out, so we can design the GUI to facilitate this goal.

Update Recordset Activity Diagrams

Lastly we will look at some activity diagrams for updating a recordset in the database. If you cast your mind back to Chapter 6 you may recall that our interview with Valerie, the Northwind Sales Representative, highlighted a problem with the old order processing system - if another user was accessing the database table that Valerie wanted to use, she was simply prevented from having access to it until the other user had finished with it. With our ADO disconnected recordsets we have overcome this problem. Each user can work with a recordset on the client machine. The user can then request to update the database. MTS also allows us to perform our database updates under transactions. During this process the system must check for any conflicting records (another user may have been making conflicting changes to the same data), attempt to reconcile any differences then either accept the transaction or rollback the changes. This is not a straightforward process and we will not explore it in...

The Full Use Case Model

Sales Representative We can see that, basically, our final use case documents are a verbal description of what happens when someone using the program we want to design needs to create a new customer. Actors are identified (sales representatives), start and end points are located (in this case, a sales representative asking to create a new customer, and successfully having created a new customer) and a flow of events is drawn up to explain how the system can get from the start point to the end point (information obtained from our scenarios). Further to this, some alternative sequences are identified (perhaps the user decides they don't want to add a customer half way through the process), measurable results are defined, and some business rules are created.

Specifying your projects objectives

Regional sales manager District sales manager Sales representatives Suppose you're a sales representative and your boss says you'll be successful if you achieve 20 million to 25 million in sales for the year. As far as you're concerned, you'll be 100 percent successful as soon as you reach 20 million. Most likely, however, your boss will consider you 100 percent successful only when you reach 25 million. Although you and your boss appeared to reach agreement, you didn't.

Defining the Different Types of Users

It would simply be impossible to define a different technique of fulfilling the same goal for every possible user, especially if we have thousands or tens of thousands of users. Therefore, we look at all of the users of the system, place them in groups, and then create a certain type of functionality for the group. The system may have one set of functionality for the customer and another set of functionality for an order entry group. In other words, we will group people together based on how they interact with the system. For example, anyone entering orders into a database will interact with the system in the same way so we can define an order entry clerk role. Sales Representatives and Sales Manager will use this role to enter orders. It is important to remember that the role a person is in has nothing to do with their job title. If a person who is a manager is filling in for a sales representative while they are on a break, and the manager is using the system to accomplish the goals...

Defining Components from Use Cases

Primary Actor Sales Representative We can further see that we have italicized seven verbs, which will give rise to the methods exposed by these components. Three of our verbs - place, create and update - are amongst the goals of the primary actor, the sales representative these all require a separate use case. 'Place order' is the current use case, and we have to define use cases for 'create customer' and 'update customer'. From this we can see that we will need an Order component that has an Add New method to allow us to add new orders. Before we can actually use the Add New method, though, we will have to perform all the steps listed in the use case. As for the Customer component, it will need an Add New method to create a customer and an Edit method to update a customer. These methods will also require the steps listed in those use cases to be completed.

Marketing a New System to the User

For example, a consumer products organization recently implemented a sales force automation system that greatly reduced the lead time to move orders on the books to the factory. When implementing the system, they found it was difficult to get the sales representatives to attend scheduled training classes. Given their compensation plans, salespeople preferred to spend time with customers, not in classes. The IS organization discovered that the most effective way to reach the sales force was to attend its regularly scheduled sales meeting. Training for the new applications was delivered in one to two hour modules during the sales meeting.

Scenario Define Stakeholder Requirements

The inside and outside sales representatives access various sales screens to input customer account information, place orders, price products, and check inventory. Every sales manager uses the system when monitoring customer calls, developing employee performance reviews, or handling customer complaints. One of the managers is responsible for providing reports internally and to the upper-level managers. In their most recent meeting, the sales representatives were concerned about the response time of the new system. They have to wait an inordinate amount of time when placing orders. They also are concerned because the drop-down list on one of the screens does not contain the data they need. The managers agree that the response time issue seems to be a common problem throughout the sales organization. The sales report manager mentions that her biggest problem is having to create Excel spreadsheets to manipulate the format of the data contained in the canned reports.

Integration Gateway Market and Customer Interface

The integration of projects with the company's market and customer base is accomplished through an organizational process, not a technical one. The organization is vertically integrated to tie marketing and sales to project planning and management. This is accomplished by linking the marketing and sales departments in a matrix relationship with program and project management. Marketing and sales representatives are tied virtually to project team status and review meetings, and project design and development can be interrupted by marketing and sales inputs at any time through the change control process. Integrated project management opens the change control process to its own marketing and sales people through this linkage. This is not easily done in many companies because of the traditional separation of project, marketing, and sales departments. This separation is functional because marketing and sales are outward bound activities, while projects are inward bound activities. Cultural...

Information Technology Department

In many cases, IT departments have created one or more and sometimes several quick and dirty applications with little or no documentation. These applications may have been written to accommodate an immediate, but unplanned business need, such as specific membership data needed by sales representatives that might not be available through the current application set. There may be long-term plans for resolving a mass of temporary applications quickly put into place to accommodate combined data from company mergers. Seldom is there sufficient documentation to flesh out the inner workings of the system and, due to employee turnover, there may not even be anyone that understands why it was done the way it was. Survival of the business is based on users being able to do what they have to do in order to meet the business needs of the company. Funding for IT efforts becomes a competition with primary business products and services.

Moving from Third Level Goals to Scenarios

In the conceptual stage, we will view each goal from the perspective of the person who will fulfill the goal (which will be listed in the Vision Scope document). In our example above, the customer's goal is to easily submit a complaint. We have stepped into their role and found the steps they will want to take to accomplish this goal. Don't forget though, that we will want to create and improve processes for employees as well as customers. A goal, in this regard, might be improve the efficiency and ease-of-use of the order processing procedure . In the Vision Scope document we may find that it is the goal of Sales Representatives and Sales Managers to easily process orders. We can step into their role in the same way.

Are Two Forms better than

To address this issue, let's imagine that there is another use case called Review All Customers performed by the Sales Manager actor. Part of this Review All Customers use case is to check if a customer's information is correct. If the information is incorrect, then the Sales Manager has to modify the customer record. If the only place to modify customer information were on the Order Entry form, the Sales Manager would have to perform this task in the Order Entry form, which would make no sense, as this task has nothing to do with Order Entry. We could make a separate form that is specifically for Customer Review. While this may seem redundant, as there are now two places to edit information, there are advantages to doing this. What if the Sales Manager needed to look at a customer's past sales history, balance information, and products purchased as part of the customer review Now it makes sense to have one individual form to handle customer review.

Develop Project Business Plan

Business plan development may be a part of the project management methodology process. Otherwise, project business plan development can be conducted and managed by the PMO or by the portfolio management team (or portfolio administrator). In addition, it should be noted that in some organizations the business plan is created by the business advocate or sales manager, and this option can be incorporated into the process used.

Uncertainty reduction in Open Design

Experience with this procedure shows that calculations with the most probable values as given by experts tend to provide a reasonable outcome, whereas the same calculations based on single values given by experts tend to give weird results. Apparently, when people are asked to give only one value, they will actually give their pessimistic estimate without saying so. A calculation based on such values will always give an unsatisfactory financial return. In practice, the financial analyst has then to challenge the experts or managers involved and ask them if they can do better. They ask the sales manager if he can sell better, ask the production manager if he can produce more efficiently, etc. This goes on until a financial return has been reached which is in line with the company's policy. Calculation with most probable values, by contrast, usually gives a satisfactory result straight away, with the important advantage that managers don't feel manipulated. By accepting their estimates...

Development and implementation of a computer system

There is, however, a particular risk to be addressed. Conference managers are expected to deliver a successful conference. Yet success means different things to different people. To the sales manager, it may mean making a profit. For the head of editorial, however, who decides the conference's content and speakers, success may mean a positive response from the delegates. Meanwhile, to the conference department manager, success may mean having accurate marketing materials, effective booking mechanisms and seeing everyone turn up on the day to hear speakers in the advertised order. The risk is that with these different measures of success, the conference manager will be unable to secure an important go or no-go decision should the number of delegates be low. Should it fall to the conference manager to negotiate with a sales manager who wishes to cancel the event and the head of editorial who wants it to continue

The Accidental Project Manager

The story above is not an isolated incident. Every day, engineers, salespeople, technicians, and countless others are thrust into the role of project manager. They're very good at what they do. In fact, they're typically the most technically knowledgeable engineers or the most successful salespeople. Now they're about to become project managers.

Building Your Resource Network

Example A sales department manager was assigned the project of developing procedures for salespeople, to ensure follow-through with customers. Salespeople were not delivering orders correctly or supplying important information needed to fulfill their orders. The manager was told to come up with a sales manual, as well as newly designed order forms, and to ensure that the fulfillment department would be able to deliver what the customers wanted. Salespeople, who were familiar with the order completion process and who knew the kinds of problems that had come up in the past. Their participation would help in the design of practical procedures and forms that could be put into use and that would also resolve the problems that were creating poor fulfillment. In addition, the project manager assigned two employees from his department to help with the task of compiling information from others and designing preliminary forms, writing new procedures, and following up on approval and suggestions...

Future User Requirements

Apply the user demographics defined previously to define who the target user is. The future user may or may not be your existing user. Call potential users or invite them to a roundtable meeting. Future users may have very different needs from existing users. Don't overlook these differences. For example, your salespeople may be calling on corporate executives. You plan on having your products available to sell on the Web. You may find that executives do not visit your Web site, delegating this duty to an associate. The associate may need additional information from your Web site so he can understand your product and provide his boss with the information to make a decision. It is important to identify who will be accessing the information and who will be using the information to understand how best to create this new application.

Human Resource Management

Few, if any, companies offer the kind of highly incentivized financial package so common among bankers and software salespeople. Project managers are paid a decent salary and may receive some bonus although it is usually paid annually and not on the basis of performance on any single project. In fact, by selecting project people, companies typically populate their project manager roles with individuals whose biggest

Principles for Working in the Real World

Our earlier discussion of Sonoco's introduction of the plastic bag is illustrative of the need for this kind of leadership and energy. The plastic grocery sack was pushed into the marketplace through the day-to-day efforts of marketing. Salespeople worked with customers to discover and resolve their issues and provide feedback to headquarters for development or production changes. During that process, the sales force lived for that product. They were energized by the challenge, sustained by a champion who never gave up, and reinforced daily by customers and clients who changed their thinking and behaviors because of the new product.

Subsystem Finance And Measurements

For example, consider measurements on inventory. In Figure 7.1, we see that the sales organization wants to increase inventory to be able to satisfy more customers on the spot. It is very frustrating for salespeople to make a sale, only to find that the company cannot meet the customer's required date due to lack of available inventory. Production, on the other hand, is trying to decrease inventory to meet its goal of cost cutting. Since it is charged with inventory carrying costs, Production appears to be in conflict with Sales. A third player enters the picture and has yet a different goal. The Finance Department wants to maintain inventory where it is. It has to meet banking covenants and shareholder expectations. If inventory is reduced too much too quickly, it causes the cost of goods sold to increase, showing reduced profit for the firm. Inventory is also viewed as an asset by the bank, and is considered to be collateral for lines of credit and loans.

Standard projectproduct

This is similar to a rate card used by sales people to arrive at a price. In this case, the numbers (showing the effort in days needed to complete the exercise) have been refined over a period during which many standard projects have been repeatedly carried out. This produces a matrix that can be used to work out the effort required for future projects.

Principle Build team accountability

New product development teams should be representative of the wide spectrum of competencies needed to pull a product through to the marketplace quickly, including a strong project manager, product designers and developers, engineers, technicians, configuration managers, production and inventory managers, training staff, and marketing and sales people.

Acceptance Criteria

By definition, acceptance criteria are pre-established standards or requirements that a project must meet. When you define these at the outset of the security project plan, you can get all of the relevant stakeholders on the same page and agreeing to the same results. Referring back to the user example Suppose the Accounting department wants users to have to login a second time to examine specific documents, but the Sales department wants one fast, easy way for its remote sales people to login to the network and retrieve accounting documents, sometimes over intermittent or slow connections. If you appease one group, you'll likely frustrate the other. In this case, you'll end up with a security project plan that is deemed a failure (or at least, less than successful) by one group or the other.To avoid this kind of push-pull, define requirements and acceptance criteria for each of your individual security area project plans, as well as for your security project plan as a whole. Make...

The Transition Into

If the system's intended for a specific user group, then you may have to help with things like training, setting up base data, integrating the system with others, and testing the system in its live environment. If it's a system for sale, then your responsibilities may be different, but you will have to help set up installation routines and support structures, or provide help to the marketing and sales people.

Observations From the Titans

In the past two years, American Express Financial Advisors, Inc., United Air Lines, and Ryder Systems, Inc., have all established project management offices because they must manage their methodologies on a regular basis. These offices have the sole mandate and authority to authorize changes in systems development deadlines and budgets. They act as the security check for catching any projects in the red. This is the way effective companies work. When American Express Financial Advisors set up its project office, budget overruns of as high as 500 percent were not uncommon at the Minneapolis-based company, according to Warren G. Herreid (2001), a former lieutenant in the military and the office's senior director. Most increases resulted from changes in project requirements and or development tools. Two years ago, for example, a mid-project switch from Windows operating system to OS 2 caused a 200 percent overrun and more than a one-year delay on a general ledger application. Now, all...

Scenario Address Concerns and ReEstablish Credibility

The savings revenue figures estimated as a result of this project are well into the millions and are, therefore, appealing to the corporate officers. The sponsor of the project is the division manager of sales and marketing and was instrumental in gaining senior management approval for the project. She has taken personal ownership and responsibility for ensuring its success because she feels it will provide her sales people with increased opportunities for competing more effectively in the marketplace.

Initial Project Coordination

Two objections to such early participation by engineering and manufacturing , are likely to be raised by marketing. First, the sales arm of the organization is trained to sell and is expected to be fully conversant with all technical aspects of the firm's products services. Further, salespeople are expected to be knowledgeable about design and manufacturing lead times and schedules. On the other hand, it is widely assumed by marketing (with some justice on occasion) that manufacturing and design engineers do not understand sales techniques, will be argumentative and or pessimistic about client needs in the presence of the client, and are generally not housebroken when customers are nearby. Second, it is expensive to involve so much technical talent so early in the sales process typically, prior to issuing a proposal. It can easily cost a firm more than 10,000 to send five technical specialists on a trip to consider a potential client's needs. The willingness to accept higher sales...

Project Selection Methods Financial Returns

The next table shows financial advisor cash inflows with an initial investment of 8,000,000. The financial advisor project has the third best payback, which would be in the s number 3. Based on the kiosk, financial advisor, and franchise projects, use the net present value method t money (interest rate) is 5 percent and you will calculate NPV over five years for each project. Create a program to recruit community financial advisors. IRR 3 percent 1. Based on the kiosk, financial advisor, and franchise projects, which one will provide the best them.

Stakeholders Roles and Authorities

Remember that the stakeholders are those who have something at stake in this project. Stakeholders can be, but don ' t have to be, the end users of the system. Stakeholders can be, but don 't have to be, the project sponsor. Stakeholders can be vendors, marketing experts who can use the project' s outcome to further the goals and ambitions of the company, salespeople who can advance-sell the project ' s outcomes, and so forth.

Ensuring The Correct Project Scope

There are two current common practices that are at the heart of project scope problems. One common practice is the dissection of organizations into silos (functional areas) combined with the initiation of projects that try to optimize within a silo. The damage can be illustrated with two real-life examples. In one case, the company had many sales campaign projects that brought customers into their shops and call centers requesting new, advertised products. At the same time, due to poor distribution logistics, the shops were often out of stock of the advertised products. Due to inadequate order entry systems, any customer that wanted two or more products had to wait while the salespeople re-entered all of the same customer information, often infuriating the customer to the point of canceling the transaction.

Identifying the Drivers Supporters and Observers in Your Audience

Consider that an information technology group has the job of modifying the layout and content of a monthly sales report for all sales representatives. The vice president of sales requested the project, and the chief information officer (CIO the boss of the head of the information technology group) approved it. If you were the project manager for this project, you may consider categorizing your project's audiences as follows Drivers The vice president of sales is a driver because he has specific reasons for revising the report. The CIO is a potential driver because she may hope to develop certain new capabilities for her group through this project. Individual sales representatives are all drivers for this project because they'll use the redesigned report to support their work.

The Wrong Result

A PMO that has been established on the supply side of the organization over time may fail to bring enough focus onto the market side (see Chapter 1 for discussion of market side vs. supply side). Every organization, including not-for-profits, experiences market challenges. A PMO that does not have significant marketing and sales skills within the PMO is fated to lose executive interest when the organization loses revenues or market share. PMOs that do not influence the project selection and initiation process for vital projects have a high risk of losing executive support.


Approvals should always include a statement of what is being approved and the depth or range of the approval. Approvals represent closure of a sales experience, even when nothing is being sold or exchanged. The exchange of value with an approval is frequently one of basic progress and forward momentum on the project.

Engagement Concept

Because each project is unique and must be approached very differently from the next because of client requirements and demands, in the engagement or concept phase, the project manager and sales executive actually meet with the client and discuss possibilities and begin to extend the communications process between the parties involved. This is often the most important phase as it sets the standard going forward. This can initially be a single occurrence or a series of meetings that brings the stakeholders together. It identifies key role players in the project and starts setting responsibilities.

Phased Estimating

One of the reasons Tynet had so many late or overbudget projects in the past was the way it bid them. A Tynet sales representative would visit a prospective client to understand the problem and develop a proposal. Since there were often technical issues that the sales representative didn't understand completely, it was easy for the representative to underestimate a project. Now we use a phased estimating model based on a standard project life cycle, explains LaMure. The previous model was a no-win scenario for the sales reps, because they couldn't be expected to understand all the components of a job, but they were under pressure to get the business. Tynet's phased estimating model follows six phases. (See Figure 8.7.) 1. Business analysis. This is where a sales representative spends time most productively. The sales reps qualify clients to make sure the client and Tynet are a good fit, and if they aren't, they'll refer the client to someone else. If it looks like Tynet could help the...

Using Tabs

We have chosen to use tabs in this section. Using tabs on a form can prevent the form from becoming overcrowded and difficult to follow. Here, our user needs to check information about a product, such as cost and availability. So there is a tab to display this general information about the product. Sometimes, particularly when new products have been entered into the system the Sales Representative is not sure to which category the products belong. Therefore we have provided a tab to perform a product search. For most of the time this option will not be used and the tab would not be selected. When it is needed it can be pulled up quickly with a single click of the tab. The alternative is to open a special product form that allows the user to search for a product. The Sales Representative would then have to close this form when they had finished and return to the Order Entry form. If the user needs to do this a number of times while taking an order, the solution would involve moving...

Class Hierarchies

OK, so we have a two-class hierarchy consisting of a managed class (clsCustomers) and a managing class (clsCustomersManager). Together, the two classes would make up our Customers component. What happens, however, if we have more than one type of customer Consider the following hypothetical situation. Different users at Northwind may actually need to look at different types of customers. For instance, a Sales Representative may need to view all customers during their working day but a Sales Analyst at Northwind might need to look at all the customers who have made orders very recently. Or a rather interested Sales Manager somewhere may need to view all customers who are regularly spending over 1000 an order, say. In other words, each different user may need to view a different Customers collection. In this situation we would have to deal with three collections of customers. The best way to handle this would be to create a three-level class hierarchy

Interviewing Users

Following is an example of the sort of interview that might take place with a Northwind Sales Representative, who will use the role of order entry clerk Valerie No, I can't change an order. Once I've entered an order, if there's an error in the order, the Sales Manager has to take care of it and she is responsible for modifying the orders. Valerie Yeah, sometimes when we are shorthanded or really busy, the Sales Manager will step in and take orders.


New product development projects are most effectively managed when marketing is linked directly to project management from beginning to end. The integration of new product-oriented projects with the company's market and customer base is accomplished through an organizational process, not a technical one. The organization is vertically integrated to tie marketing and sales to project planning and management. This is accomplished by linking the marketing and sales departments in a matrix relationship with program and project management. Marketing and sales representatives are tied virtually to project team status and review meetings, and project design and development can be interrupted by marketing and sales inputs at any time through the change control process. Integrated project management opens the change control process to its own marketing and sales people through this linkage. This is not easily done in many companies because of the traditional separation of project, marketing,...


Limit of Liability Disclaimer of Warranty While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

User Demographics

The first step in identifying the user's demographics is to identify who the end user is. For example Executive staff wants specific information from the sales organization, so branch sales managers will need to file a new report. IT was asked to create a report that the managers can use to input sales data. By visiting a branch office and seeing how the sales organization works, it becomes apparent that the salespeople are currently gathering the requested information in their Palm Pilots. Instead of creating an input screen for the sales managers, it would be more effective to create a report that can be compiled from data residing on the salespeople's Palm Pilots. Salespeople will need a way to transmit data from their Palm Pilots to the branch's server, and managers will need to access reports that are compiled from the downloaded data.

Stage Scoping

A preliminary market assessment is one facet of Stage 1 and involves a variety of relatively inexpensive activities an Internet search a library search contacts with key users, distributors, and salespeople a survey of competitors' Web pages or literature focus groups and even a quick concept test with a handful of potential users. The purpose is to determine market size, market potential, and likely market acceptance and also to begin to shape the product concept.

Subsystem Marketing

When we listen to many vice presidents of marketing describe their projects, we hear a great deal about data analysis and sales support. We find many people within marketing functions who rarely visit clients or prospects. Good marketing people ask their customers and prospects a completely different set of questions than the salespeople would ask. Therefore, there is a very important question that a marketing function must ask, analyze, and address. This question should become the meat of projects in marketing. The question for both customers and prospects is What problems do you have that no one in our industry is addressing In other words, marketing must discover what problems it can solve in the industry that no competitors have yet solved. Salespeople, on the other hand, ask, Did you have any problem with our company in your last order This is an excellent question for a salesperson who wants to retain a customer's business. It is not meaningful for a marketing person who wants...

Proposed Schedule

Release criteria can also help you build whole-product responsibility into the product release. For example, can the salespeople sell the product that meets these criteria Can the support staff support the product Can the trainers develop and deliver training When you work with people across the organization to define what success looks like, they realize not only are they accountable for their part but also that they're pointing you toward project success as well.

The Ill Fated Project

The Southern California plant supplied the aircraft industry, and one airplane company provided 90 percent of the Southern California plant's sales. Jeff was mainly concerned about the sales projections used by Ehlke in justifying the machining center. Ehkle pointed out that his projections were based on what the airplane company had told him they expected to buy out the next five years. Since this estimate was crucial to the justification, Jeff suggested that a meeting be arranged with the appropriate people at the airplane company to explore these projections. Since the local National sales representative was ill, the distributor salesman, Jack White, accompanied Jeff and Ben. While at the airplane company (APC), the chief tool buyer of APC, Tom Kelly, was informed that Jeff was there. Jeff received a message from the receptionist that Tom Kelly wanted to see him before he left the building. After the sales projections were reviewed and Jeff was convinced that they were as accurate...


An application that has different actors with different responsibilities will usually have a log in screen and some form of security. If our application employs the Review All Customers use case, the application should have security added and only allow a person logged in as a Sales Manager to view the Customer Review form. The Customer Review form would not be accessible to a Sales Representative. The Sales Representative has one main role, entering orders. There will only be one form she should have access to, the Order Entry form. The Sales Representative would come in at the beginning of the day and log in as a Sales Representative. The application would go directly to the Order Entry form, as this is the only form a person in this role can access. As for our Sales Manager, when he logs in there will either be special forms related to his role, such as the Customer Review form, or one form which will provide different functionality for different users, such as the Order Entry form.

Proof Of Insurance

The CM GC and the owner have retained an insurance agent as their Insurance Broker for the project. The CM GC and or owner will be providing an Owner or a Contractor Controlled Insurance Program (OCIP) (CCIP) for the project. Your firm in order to be enrolled in the CCIP program and track the actual project site payroll. The OCIP CCIP insurance program provides for the actual calculations by owner, CM GC, and insurance broker, of the insurance credit to be deducted from your base lump sum bid. This will be based on the actual payroll and work performed. The deduct alternate which was requested in the original bid documents will not be used as an actual cost, but rather as a budget estimate of the projected credit. Subcontractor to cooperate with the owner, CM GC, and insurance agent to classify personnel, submit certified payroll, and copies of all current insurance certificates and policies to assist with the evaluation of the insurance credit.

Evaluating Vendors

A vendor's salesperson may have been working with your IT department for a long time. They may have been spearheading the project. The teams' responsibility is to the company and the project, not to the vendor. Keep an open mind review multiple solutions you may be surprised what you find. Salespeople have a way of disappearing after they sell a solution. Your job is to ensure that the company receives the best solution. 4. Check references. You should talk to at least three customers who have installed and used the solution. If the vendor can't provide three customer references run Make sure the referred customers are using the solution in a production environment. During the Internet boom many new companies came on the market. They got big funding, impressive offices, and lots of press. Salespeople gave presentations showing all the Fortune 500 customers using their solution. Established IT folks bought these new solutions thinking they were complete applications...