Contents

Acknowledgments xix Introduction xxi

Chapter 1. Create a Culture of Ideas 1

The Soul of Innovation and Creativity 1

The Story of Quikmate®: Introduction of Sonoco Products Co. Plastic Grocery Sacks 1

New Organizational Structure for New Products 5

New Products and Outsourcing 5

Organizational Learning 5

Seven Key Strategies 6

State that new product development is the business 6

Remove barriers 6

Promote return on creativity 6

Providing information and feedback 7

Creating a virtual place for new ideas 7

Generating a filtering process 7

Demonstrating successful ideas 8

Organizational Agility 8

Creative intelligence and new products 8

Risk and New Product Development 9

Risk: The organizational culture issue 9

A culture of risk management competence 10

Link corporate and new product planning 10

Training and development in risk 11

Project experience 11

Learning organization 11

Functional managers 11

Building the Culture 12

Keane's risk process 12

Risk analysis and mitigation 13

Addressing risk with scenarios 14

Performance incentives 14

The Johari Window 14

Personal, Project, and Organizational Risks 16

The New Product Risk Framework 17

Another Case in (No) New Product Development: The Schneider Program 19

Another Story of New Product Development 23

Chapter 2. Strategic Alignment and the New Product Portfolio 29

New Product Portfolio 29

New project process 29

The Eastern Case 30

Commitment and partnership 32

Stakeholder relations 32

Eight strategies 33

Overview on integration issues 34

Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats 35

Eastern's Strategic Plan 37

Underlying Elements of the Risk-Based Strategic Plan 38

Mission 38

Commitment and partnership 38

Driving force: Production capability 38

Core competencies and risk contingencies 38

Eight Key Strategies 39

Strategy 1—Secure economically priced power 39

Strategy 2—Secure other resources at reasonable costs 40 Strategy 3—Cultivate customer awareness and promote customer satisfaction 40

Strategy 4—Create a safe working environment 42

Strategy 5—Build a responsible and knowledgeable workforce 43 Strategy 6—Improve technology and plant equipment to produce new products more efficiently 44

Strategy 7—Improve Eastern's impact on the environment 44

Strategy 8—Reduce waste and non-value-added costs 46

Communicating Strategy and Risk 47 Programs and New Product Ideas: Generation of a New Product

Portfolio to Implement Eastern Strategies No. 3 and 6 47

Designing programs of new product ideas 47

Strategy 3: Cultivate customer awareness and promote customer satisfaction 48 Strategy 6: Improve technology and plant equipment to produce products more efficiently 48

Postscript to the Strategic Plan 49

Acquisition and merger 49

Integration in Global and International Projects 50

Postscript on Integration and the Eastern Case 50

Analyzing a New Product Portfolio—General Lessons from Other Cases 50

Weighted scoring model and net present value 50

Risk matrix sample 52

Funding New Product Projects 53

The New Product Development Pipeline 54

Chapter 3. Project Integration and Setup 57

Project Management System 57

Integration as a Leadership Function 59

Integration as a Wide Ranging Quality and Process Improvement Standard 59

Tools in Building an Integrated Project Management System 60

Organizationwide project management system 61

Program/portfolio planning and development system 62

Resource management system 63

Program information technology system 64

Product/service development process 64

Interface management 65

Portfolio management 65

Program monitoring and control system 66

Change management system 66

Program evaluation system 66

Limitations of Integration Systems 67

The Critical Chain Concept 67

PMI OPM (Organizational Project Management) 3 67

Balanced Scorecard 68

eProcurement 68

Integration: Concepts and Models 69

Understanding integration 70

Integration model 71

Project Integration Management: Organizational Issues 72

Prepare the Organization 73

Develop systems of integration 73

Develop integration skills 73

Recognize integration success 73

Integrate with the customer 74

More Detail on the PMI PMBOK Standard for Project Integration 74

Develop Project Charter 77

Develop project charter: Inputs 79

Organizational Process Assets 80

Develop project charter: Tools and techniques 81

Develop project charter: Outputs 82

Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement 83

Develop preliminary project scope statement: Tools and techniques 84

Develop project management plan 84

Develop project management plan: Inputs 86

Develop project management plan: Tools and techniques 86

Develop project management plan: Outputs 87

Direct and Manage Project Execution 87

Direct and manage project execution: Inputs 88

Direct and manage project execution: Tools and techniques 89

Direct and manage project execution: Outputs 89

Monitor and Control Project Work 90

Monitor and control project work: Inputs 90

Integrated Change Control 91

Integrated change control:Inputs 93

Integrated change control: Tools and techniques 93

Integrated change control: Outputs 94

Close Project 94

Close project: Inputs 95

Close project: Tools and techniques 95

Close project: Outputs 96

Case Study of PMBOK Implementation: Integrated Transportation System 97

Integration gateway 1: Global interface 97

Integration gateway 2: Business planning 105

Integration gateway 3: Organizational development 106

Integration gateway 4: Global team composition and development 106

Integration gateway 5: Support systems audit 107

Integration gateway 6: Portfolio development and management 108

Integration gateway 7: Market and customer interface 109

Integration gateway 8: Project integration management 110

Integration gateway 9: Systems safety and reliability 110 Integration gateway 10: Chassis, mechanical, and electronics design and development 111

Integration gateway 11: Software design and development 111

Integration gateway 12: Test equipment and testing 111

Integration gateway 13: Integration of software and hardware 111 Another Case Application: Integration Issues in Portfolio and Project

Planning Life Cycles 112

The Case: QUICK-TECH building systems 112

Business and Strategic Planning 112

Business and strategic planning integration issues 113

The portfolio: Procedures in development 113

Definition: Work breakdown structure 115

Plan tasks for earned value 117

Integrated monitoring 122

"Reading" the project as an integrated whole 123

Integration of cost, schedule, risk, and quality 123

Steps in the cost/schedule/risk/quality integration process 125

Integration Skills of the Program and Project Manager 125

Single project management 126

Program (or multiproject) management 127

BuildIt: A Sample Integrated Program Structure 127

Organization 128

Strategic statement 128

One- to five-year strategic objectives 128

Program of projects 128

Project cost accounting systems (PCAS) 129

A program management manual for integrated project management 129

Program management principles 129

Meet customer requirements 130

Follow integrated, generic WBS—Product development process 130

Standard work breakdown structure 130

Teamwork 130

Define and communicate the scope of work and assignments clearly 131

Collaboration across the organization 131

Work will be quality and schedule driven 131

Ensure timely procurement of product components 131

Change will be managed 131

Program progress will be tracked periodically reviewed 132

Program management: Roles and responsibilities 132

Program management office (PMO) 132

Program manager role 132

Departmental manager roles in the matrix 133

Role of the program administrator/planner 134

Program planning, scheduling, and resource management 134

Five-step scheduling process 137

Schedule control 137

Baselining the schedule 139

Baseline procedures 140

Managing schedules on the network 140

Resource planning and control 141

Tracking and program review 141

Schedule update procedures 141

Analyzing variance 142

Program close-out and lessons learned 143

Concept definition 144

Project setup for control 144

Structure, science, and research 146

Preliminary project plan 146

Project charter 147

Financial analysis 148

Project Scope Statement 150

Schedule 151

Resource plan 151

Budget 151

Configuration Management System 151

Change control system 152

Application to new product development 152

ORANGE-AID: New Product Development Case 153

Early/Late Start and Finish Analysis 154

PERT analysis 160

Decision Trees and Uncertainty 164

Decision tree example 164

Decision tree theory 165

Expected value 165

Pat's decision example using decision trees 166

Target cost analysis 168

Chapter 4. Product Concept Definition 171

The Product Concept Phase 171

Entering the Concept Definition Process 171

Controlling premature product lock-in 172

Concept Definition Phase 172

Schedule Template 172

Setup for Project Review: Go or No-Go Decision 174

Project review: Go or no-go time 174

Going from Idea to Concept to Product 175

New Product Concept Proposal 175

Need, Form, and Technology 176

Project Value Assessment 176

Estimating Product Value in New Systems or Process Concepts 177

Concept Risk Assessment 178

External analysis: Public policy analysis 179

Intellectual property analysis 179

Market demand and other impacts 180

Product Functional Specifications 180

Commercialization Analysis 181

Competitive Analysis 181

Finding drivers of competition 182 Working Out Customer/Client/User Expectations, Needs, Wants, and Requirements 183

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) 184

Plan for the Development Phase 185

Focus on product life cycle 185

Equipment and logistics plan 186

Business Case 186

Final Project Review 186

Chapter 5. Full Product Development and Marketing 189

Development and Marketing 189

Project Setup and Management 189

Prototype development 193

Reliability 194

Build and production transition plan 195

Safety and regulatory review 195

Preliminary equipment and component review 195

Configuration management 196

Validate functional requirements 196

Confirmation of Final Product Design 197

Confirm Functional Requirements 198

Confirmation of Product Specifications 198

Conforming requirements to customer need 199

Preliminary Design Review 199

Reliability Planning 201

Setting reliability objectives 201

Prepare reliability plan 202

Confirmation of Reliability Requirements 202

Pre-prototype design review 203

Detailed product and component design review 204

System-level design review 204

Prepare test protocols and facilities 205

Service, logistics, and maintenance plan 205

Final test plan 205

Special project management issue: Test space and equipment 205

Prototype development and testing process 206

Conduct Prototype Test 206

Select commercial partner 207

Selection of supplier partner 207

Steps in partner selection 207

Prepare Product Component Support Document 208

Risk Assessment 209

Intellectual Property Strategy 211

Develop Preliminary Market Launch Plan 211

Field Support to Market Launch 212

Create Production Process and Plan 212

Create preliminary production plan 212

Quality control review 212

Produce test units 213

Develop field test protocol 213

Develop field test implementation plan 214

Update service and logistics plan 215

Update Business Plan 215

Update market definition 216

Locking in product design 216

Final Regulatory Approval 217

Final production transition and scheduling 218

Reconfirm Final Business Case 218

Supply chain strategy 218

Update market assessment 219

First Article Review 219

Prepare manufacturing operations plan 219

Produce first article 219

Final financial performance analysis 219

Final Logistics Plan for Market Launch 220

Prepare listing of infrastructure and support needs 220

Prepare checklist for each market location 221

Market Launch Plan 221

Market positioning 222

Manage product marketing 222

Service and product 222

Market launch planning 222

A different project team 222

A Marketing Launch Plan 223

Key Role of Experienced People 223

Market Scheduling 223

Risk-Based Scheduling 225

Procedure 225

A Note on Microsoft Project PERT and Risk Matrix Terminology 226

Chapter 6. New Product Development in Consumer

Products and Electronic Instrumentation 229

Special Challenges in Electronic and Computer-Based

New Product Development 229

Missing the forest for the trees 230

Top management support 230

Organizational mismanagement 231

Misalignment with business plans 231

Keeping marketing out 231

Project management by accident 231

Focus on task durations 231

Too many projects in the pipeline 232

Project Risk Management 232

The product development process and risk 232 Risk management in product development: Embedded verification and validation 233

Stages in Product Development in Electronic Instrumentation 233

Steps in Product Development 234

Step 1: Requirements definition 234

Step 2: Detailed design 234

Step 3: Prototype development 235

Step 4: Design validation 235

Step 5: Production transition 236

Risks in Organizational and Technical Interfaces 236

Design changes 236

Design review and risk 237

Risk reviews 237

Preliminary design risk review (PDRR) 238

Critical design risk review (CDRR) 238

Production readiness risk review (PRRR) 238

System design risk review (SDRR) 238

Test readiness risk review (TRRR) 239

Task-level requirements risk review (TLRRR) 239

Task-level design risk review (TLDRR) 239

General Responsibilities 239

System-level reviews 240

Task-level reviews 240

Function of task-level reviews 240

Preliminary design risk review (PDRR) 240

Critical design risk review (CDRR) 242

System design risk review (SDRR) 242

Test readiness risk review (TRRR) 243

Task-level requirements review (TLRR) 243

New Product Software Development Risk 244

Chapter 7. Quality, Six Sigma, and New Product Development 247

Quality and Process Improvement 247

Customer-Driven Risk Management 248 Illustration of New Product Risk Management—The Defense

Risk Program 249

Six Sigma quality template 249

DoD outline for quality 249

Timeline 251

New Product Portfolio Management 252

Value of Customer-Driven, New Product Risk Management 252

Risks in Customer Expectation, Need, and Requirements 253

Customer expectations 253

Customer needs 253

Customer requirements 253

Risk Lessons Learned and Project Risk Audit 253

Project audits 254

Contingency actions 256

A postscript to lessons learned 257

Project Audit 257

Scheduling Contingencies and Improvements 258

Quality Tools and Techniques 259

Quality function deployment (QFD) 261

Statistical process control (SPC) 261

Pareto analysis 261

Cost of quality 262

Quality assurance (QA) 262

Earned value 262

Project review 263

Documentation 263

Scheduling as Team Motivator 263

Quality Must be Translated to Scheduled Tasks 264

Front-end customer process analysis 266

Concept development 267

Generation of alternative candidate projects 268

Scope of work 268

Schedule 269

Budgeting and earned value 269

Quality assurance 270

Project metrics 270

Prototyping 270

Quality audit 271

Transform customer expectations to requirements 271 Follow a defined development process and work breakdown structure 271

Schedule customer and quality early 272

Customer-driven teamwork 272 Define and communicate the scope of work and assignments clearly 273

Collaboration across the organization 273

Work will be quality and schedule driven 273

Ensure timely procurement of product components 274

Change is managed 274

Program progress will be tracked and periodically reviewed 274 Involve the customer in designing the management support system 274

Quality as Driver 275

Reviewing Program Progress and Resolving Conflicts 275

Project planning 276

Departmental manager roles 277

Project team roles 277

Role of a project management office (PMO) 278

Scheduling 278

Baselining the schedule: A quality management action 280

Schedules on a network 280

Resource Planning 281

Long-Term Staff Planning 281

Preparing Staffing Policy and Plans 282

Step 1—Determine staffing levels and assignments 283

Step 2—Develop staffing standards 283

Step 3—Forecast future requirements 284

Step 4—Develop department staffing requirements 284

Step 5—Develop department staffing patterns 284

Step 6—Prepare staffing plan 284

Program Review 285

Development of Customer-Driven Program Manager Competencies 285

Agile Project Management 286

Chapter 8. Measuring New Product Development 291

Tools and Techniques 291

Design to Quality 291

Design to Six Sigma 292

Design to Cost 292

Design to Process 292

More Tools 293

System Development/Improvement 293

Concurrent Engineering 294

Robust Design 295

Loss Function 296

Robust Design Phases 296

Statistical Process Control 296

Cost of Poor Quality 297

Other Measurement Tools 297

Just-in-time 297

Total production maintenance 297

Mistake-proofing 297

Enterprise and manufacturing resource planning 298 Computer-aided design, computer-aided engineering, and computer- aided manufacturing 298

Total integrated logistics 298

System Development/Improvement Methodologies within the DoD 298

Computer-aided acquisition and logistics support 299

In-plant quality evaluation program 299

R&M 2000 299

Value engineering 299 Measuring the Success of New Product

Development Mainstreaming 300

Measuring New Product Workmanship 300

Chapter 9. Project Management and Teamwork 303

Team Dynamics 303

Customer and User Diversity 304

Personal Growth in New Product Development 304

Growth to New Products Program Manager Role 304

Single Project Management 305

Program (or Multiproject) Management 306

Gender and Minority Diversity in New Product Development 307

Individual Responsibility as a New Product Team Member 308

Do it right 310

Be a leader 310

Serve the team 310

Develop yourself 311

Doing Your Own Performance Appraisal 314

Step 1. Envision personal improvement 315

Step 2. Enable personal improvement 316

Step 3. Focus on improvement 316

Step 4. Improve the job 316

Step 5. Improve yourself 317

Step 6. Help others improve 317

Step 7. Evaluate your improvement progress 317

Empowerment 317

Improved quality of work life 318

Professional and personal development 318

Rewards and recognition 319

New job opportunities 319

Increased latitude in decision making 319

Preserving the Wonder in Project Management 320

Integrated Product Development Teams 320

Leading New Product Development 321 Using the Critical Chain Concept in New Product

Development Teams 322

Project Team Charter 322

Team Training 322

Cautionary Note on New Product Teams 323

Chapter 10. Putting It All Together 325

Principles for Working in the Real World 325

Seven Principles of Project Success 325

Principle #1 Develop key processes 326

Principle #2 Open upto new ideas 326

Principle #3 Define measures to select 327

Principle #4 Use project reviews to stop bad products 328

Principle #5 Choose technical project managers 328

Principle #6 Build team accountability 329

Principle #7 Ad hoc it when necessary 329

Appendix A. Generic New Product Development

Work Breakdown Structure 331

Appendix B. Managing New Product Development

Projects: Course Outline 339

Appendix C. Issues for Discussion 341

Bibliography 375 Index 376

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Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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