Scope Management Processes

Scope management consists of five processes: initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control. The survey data from these five processes is shown in Figure 7.4.

The first observation is that all five processes have large interquartile ranges. That indicates very different levels of process compliance and performance across the teams relative to the PD value of the process. That is due to either different interpretations of the process documentation or the outright avoidance of their use. It is highly likely that some teams decided on the approach they would take to execute a process with little regard for the process documentation. That behavior is not acceptable even if the process

PD baseline

Figure 7.4 Scope management processes PD and PP maturity level data.

documentation is weak, incorrect, or incomplete. If that is the case, the process documentation must be fixed.

There is another explanation for the data. The process documentation may be just fine but the implementation program was lacking. Integrating a new or changed process into an organization is a cultural change. Old habits have to be discarded and replaced with the new. The affected people must see the value in choosing to use the new instead of hanging on to the old. That will not happen just because the new process documentation is published and made available to teams. It will happen because the PMO puts a very carefully designed marketing communications program in place and supports it with training at convenient times and places and in a variety of learning formats. Consulting help from the PMO is another critical ingredient, l hey need to proactively support teams in the use of the changed processes.

The PD maturity levels of the scope management processes do not indicate a problem with documentation. However, the distribution of PP maturity values does indicate a problem. Note that the interquartile range values are large and extend down from a value close to the PD maturity levels for all but the scope change control process. Also note that the mean maturity values are close to the lower end of the interquartile range. That suggests a definite skew in the distribution of the data points. They tend to collect near the lower end of the range. That suggests that a few teams correctly understood and used the process while most did not understand or use the processes. The observations of the project managers seem to be confirmed. That is, the scope management knowledge area is not clearly documented. While that may not be the only reason for the less than stellar performance of these failed projects, it is a valid partial explanation. If the processes were executed as documented, one would see a much smaller interquartile range. The absence of that property indicates a problem with the documentation.

Scope change control presents a different picture. The fact that only one or two teams followed the documented process suggests that something may be wrong with the process. Laurie was troubled by that result and requested a force field analysis. The results are shown in Figure 7.5.

While the process is documented it appears to be incomplete, burdensome, and not in line with the needs of the project teams. These would seem to be easily overcome by an improvement initiative around the documentation, which should solve the problem. Training is offered but not at a time convenient to teams. Perhaps something other than instructor-led training needs to be offered.

Three initiatives were suggested:

1. Revise the current change management process to be more intuitive.

2. Investigate and remove the causes of the overburden assertion.

3. Implement a more proactive PMO consultant support role to project teams regarding change management and during project reviews.


Figure 7.5 Force field analysis of the scope change control process.

Scope change control PP maturity level values are below PD values



Figure 7.5 Force field analysis of the scope change control process.

The first two initiatives were undertaken and are reported below. The third suggestion did not seem to require an initiative. The PMO was urged to offer support as suggested. Let us take a look at what happened with the first two initiatives.

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