Chapter

1. "Fast, Focused, Fertile: The Innovation Evolution, Cheskin and Fitch: Worldwide, 2003." [www.fitchworldwide.com].

2. See new product performance results in R. G. Cooper, Winning at New Products: Accelerating the Process from Idea to Launch, 3rd ed. (Reading, Mass.: Perseus Books, 2001); American Productivity and Quality Center, New Product Development Best Practices Study: What Distinguishes the Top Performers (Houston: American Productivity and Quality Center, 2002).

3. The term Stage-Gate® was coined by the author in the 1980s and is a trademark of the Product Development Institute, www.prod-dev.com.

4. The APQC benchmarking study is a major study into new product performance and practices by the premier benchmarking institute in the United States. For more details on the benchmarking study, see American Productivity and Quality Center, New Product Development Best Practices Study, and R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, Best Practices in Product Innovation: What Distinguishes Top Performers (Newtown Square, Pa.: Product Development Institute, 2003). The APQC benchmarking results cited in this chapter have also appeared in recent journal articles; see, for example, R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part I: Culture, Climate, Teams and Senior Management Roles," Research Technology Management, 2003, 47(1), 31-43; R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part II: Strategy, Resource Allocation and Portfolio Management," Research Technology Management, 2004, 47(3), 50-59; and R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part III: The NPD Process and Decisive Idea-to-Launch Practices," Research Technology Management, 2004, 47(6).

5. See A. Griffin, Drivers of NPD Success: The 1997 PDMA Report (Chicago: Product Development and Management Association, 1997).

6. Griffin, Drivers of NPD Success.

7. The term Stage-Gate® first appeared in print in R. G. Cooper, "The New Product Process: A Decision Guide for Managers," Journal of Marketing Management, 1988, 3(3), 238-255. An earlier version was outlined in previous works; see, for example, R. G. Cooper, Winning at New Products (Reading, Mass: Addison Wesley, 1986). Stage-Gate® is now a legally registered trade name in a number of countries.

8. Problems and challenges in project selection and portfolio management were uncovered in several studies. See Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Portfolio Management in New Product Development: Lessons from the Leaders—Part I"; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Portfolio Management in New Product Development: Lessons from the Leaders—Part II"; and R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "Best Practices for Managing R&D Portfolios," Research-Technology Management, 1998, 41 (4), pp. 20-33. A second major benchmarking study, undertaken with the Industrial Research Institute, into portfolio management practices probed portfolio management practices and performance. Results are in R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "New Product Portfolio Management: Practices and Performance," Journal of Product Innovation Management, 1999, 16(4), 333-351; and R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "Portfolio Management for New Product Development: Results of an Industry Practices Study," R&D Management, 2001, 31, 361-380.

9. American Productivity and Quality Center, New Product Development Best Practices Study; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, Best Practices in Product Innovation: What Distinguishes Top Performers; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part I: Culture, Climate, Teams and Senior Management Roles"; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part II: Strategy, Resource Allocation and Portfolio Management"; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part III: The NPD Process and Decisive Idea-to-Launch Practices."

10. Parts of this section are taken from R. G. Cooper, "Overhauling the New Product Process," Industrial Marketing Management, 1996, 25, 465-48Z.

11. The assessments are from American Productivity and Quality Center, New Product Development Best Practices Study: What Distinguishes the Top Performers. Similar results have been reported in other studies. See, for example, S. Mishra, D. Kim, and D. H. Lee, "Factors Affecting New Product Success: Cross Country Comparisons," Journal of Product Innovation Management, 1996, 13, 530-550; X. M. Song and M. E. Parry, "What Separates Japanese New Product

Winners from Losers," Journal of Product Innovation Management, 1996, 13, 422-439; X. M. Song and M. M. Montoya-Weiss, "Critical Development Activities for Really New Versus Incremental Products," Journal of Product Innovation Management, 1998, 15, 124-135; C. A. Di Benedetto, "Identifying the Key Success Factors in New Product Launch," Journal of Product Innovation Management, 1999, 16, 530-544. For a comprehensive review of factors that lead to success in new product development, see R. G. Cooper, The PDMA Handbook of New Product Development, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley, 2004).

12. American Productivity and Quality Center, New Product Development Best Practices Study; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, Best Practices in Product Innovation: What Distinguishes Top Performers; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part I: Culture, Climate, Teams and Senior Management Roles"; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part II: Strategy, Resource Allocation and Portfolio Management"; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part III: The NPD Process and Decisive Idea-to-Launch Practices."

13. The rugby analogy was first introduced in B. Uttal, "Speeding New Ideas to Market," Fortune, Mar. 1987, pp. 62-66.

14. Some of these practices are explained in Cooper, Winning at New Products; Cooper, The PDMA Handbook of New Product Development; R. G. Cooper "Third-Generation New Product Processes," Journal of Product Innovation Management, 1994,11(1), 3-14.

15. American Productivity and Quality Center, New Product Development Best Practices Study; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, Best Practices in Product Innovation: What Distinguishes Top Performers; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part I: Culture, Climate, Teams and Senior Management Roles"; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part II: Strategy, Resource Allocation and Portfolio Management"; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part III: The NPD Process and Decisive Idea-to-Launch Practices."

16. American Productivity and Quality Center, New Product Development Best Practices Study; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, Best Practices in Product Innovation: What Distinguishes Top Performers; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part I: Culture, Climate, Teams and Senior Management Roles"; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part II: Strategy, Resource Allocation and Portfolio Management"; Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Benchmarking Best NPD Practices—Part III: The NPD Process and Decisive Idea-to-Launch Practices."

17. For more information on the use of lead users in idea generation, see E. A. Von Hippel, S. Thomke, and M. Sonnack, "Creating Breakthroughs at 3M," Harvard Business Review, Sept.-Oct. 1999, pp. 47-57.

18. R. Sears and M. Barry, "Product Value Analysis—Product Interaction Predicts Profits," Innovation, Winter 1993, pp. 13-18.

19. For voice of-customer methods and idea generation, see P. Lindstedt and J. Burenius, The Value Model: How to Master Product Development and Create Unrivalled Customer Value (Sweden: NIMBA AB, 2003).

20. For more information on fast-track versions of Stage-Gate®, see Cooper, Product Leadership, and Cooper, Winning at New Products.

21. For more information on Stage-Gate® for technology and platform developments, see Cooper, Product Leadership, and Cooper, Winning at New Products.

22. L. Yapps-Cohen, P. W. Kamienski, and R. L. Espino, "Gate System Focuses Industrial Basic Research," Research-Technology Management, July-Aug. 1998, pp. 34-37.

23. The concept of disruptive technologies (or radical innovations) was first developed by MIT researchers in the 1960s and later popularized by Christensen. See C. M. Christensen, The Innovator's Dilemma (New York: HarperCollins, 2000).

24. Milton D. Rosenau Jr. (ed.), PDMA Handbook for New Product Development (New York: Wiley, 1996).

25. For a sample scorecard for technology development projects, see R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, Portfolio Management for New Products, 2nd ed. (Reading, Mass: Perseus Book, 2002).

26. Cooper, Winning at New Products, has become the authority for task forces in designing a Stage-Gate® framework.

27. SG-NavigatorTM is available from Stage Gate Inc. at www.stage-gate.com.

28. Accolade™ is a comprehensive decision support system for Stage-Gate®. It was developed and is sold by Sopheon Inc. See www.sopheon.com. SG-NavigatorTM is a somewhat simpler electronic version of Stage-Gate®, available from Stage Gate Inc. at www.stage-gate.com.

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Project Management Made Easy

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