Chapter

1. This chapter also draws on R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "Portfolio Management in New Product Development: Lessons from the Leaders—Part I," Research-Technology Management, Sept.-Oct. 1997, pp. 16-28; R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "Portfolio Management in New Product Development: Lessons from the Leaders—Part II," Research-Technology Management, Nov.-Dec. 1997, pp. 43-57; R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "New Problems, New Solutions: Making Portfolio Management More Effective," Research-Technology Management, 2000, 43(2), 18-33; and R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and

E. J. Kleinschmidt, "Portfolio Management: Fundamental to New Product Success," in P. Beliveau, A. Griffin, and S. Somermeyer (eds.), The PDMA Toolbox for New Product Development (New York: Wiley, 2002).

2. Portfolio management is defined in Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Portfolio Management in New Product Development: Lessons from the Leaders—Part I."

3. P. Roussel, K. N. Saad, and T. J. Erickson, Third Generation R&D: Managing the Link to Corporate Strategy (Boston: Harvard Business School Press and Arthur D. Little, 1991).

4. Some statistics cited in this chapter are from a major study on portfolio management practices and performance study. See R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "New Product Portfolio Management: Practices and Performance," Journal of Product Innovation

Management, 1999, 16, 333-351; and R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "Portfolio Management for New Product Development: Results of an Industry Practices Study," R&D Management, 2001, 31, 361-380.

5. Parts of this section are taken from R. G. Cooper, "Maximizing the Value of Your New Product Portfolio: Methods, Metrics and Score-cards," Current Issues in Technology Management, 2003, 7(1).

6. R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, Portfolio Management for New Products, 2nd ed. (Reading, Mass.: Perseus Book, 2002).

7. Much of this section on road mapping is taken from Lucent Technologies. See R. E. Albright, "Roadmaps and Roadmapping: Linking Business Strategy and Technology Planning," in Proceedings, Portfolio Management for New Product Development, Institute for International Research and Product Development and Management Association (Fort Lauderdale, Fla., Jan. 2001). See also M. H. Meyer and A. P. Lehnerd, The Power of Platforms (New York: Free Press, 1997).

8. For more information on platforms, see Myer and Lehnerd, The Power of Product Platforms.

9. Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, Portfolio Management for New Products.

10. The example is taken from a case study in the American Productivity and Quality Center (APQC) benchmarking study on new product best practices. R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, Best Practices in Product Innovation: What Distinguishes Top Performers (Product Development Institute, 2003) [www.prod-dev.com]; R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, New Product Development Best Practices Study: What Distinguishes the Top Performers (Houston: American Productivity and Quality Center, 2002) [www.apqc.org].

11. E. Roberts and C. Berry, "Entering New Businesses: Selecting Strategies for Success," Sloan Management Review, Spring 1983, pp. 3-17.

12. More detail on the methods outlined in this section can be found in Cooper, Product Leadership; and Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, Portfolio Management for New Products.

13. T. Faulkner, "Applying 'Options Thinking' to R&D Valuation," Research-Technology Management, May-June 1995, pp. 50-57.

14. R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, R&D Portfolio Management Best Practices Study, Industrial Research Institute (Washington, D.C.: Industrial Research Institute, 1997); R. G. Cooper, S. J. Edgett, and E. J. Kleinschmidt, "Best Practices for Managing R&D Portfolios," Research-Technology Management, 1998,41 (4), 20-33.

15. Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "New Product Portfolio Management: Practices and Performance." Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Portfolio Management for New Product Development: Results of an Industry Practices Study." Faulkner, "Applying 'Options Thinking' to R&D Valuation."

16. Bubble diagrams with "value" measured qualitatively are recommended in Roussel, Saad, and Erickson, Third Generation R&D.

17. P. Evans, "Streamlining Formal Portfolio Management," Scrip Magazine, Feb. 1996; and D. Matheson, J. E. Matheson, and M. M. Menke, "Making Excellent R&D Decisions," Research Technology Management, Nov.-Dec. 1994, pp. 21-24.

18. Based on Roberts and Berry, "Entering New Businesses: Selecting Strategies for Success."

19. Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "New Product Portfolio Management: Practices and Performance." Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Portfolio Management for New Product Development: Results of an Industry Practices Study." Faulkner, "Applying 'Options Thinking' to R&D Valuation."

20. Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt, "Best Practices in Product Development: What Distinguishes Top Performers" and "Improving New Product Development Performance and Practices."

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