What The User Wanted

FIGURE 5-11. A breakdown in communications. (Source unknown)

Figures 5-12 and 5-13 show typical communications patterns. Some people consider Figure 5-12 "politically incorrect" because project managers should not be identified as talking "down" to people. Most project managers communicate laterally, whereas line managers communicate vertically downward to subordinates. Figure 5-14 shows the complete communication model. The screens or barriers are from one's perception, personality, attitudes, emotions, and prejudices.

• Perception barriers occur because individuals can view the same message in different ways. Factors influencing perception include the individual's level of education and region of experience. Perception problems can be minimized by using words that have precise meaning.

• Personality and interests, such as the likes and dislikes of individuals, affect communications. People tend to listen carefully to topics of interest but turn a deaf ear to unfamiliar or boring topics.

• Attitudes, emotions, and prejudices warp our sense of interpretation. Individuals who are fearful or have strong love or hate emotions will tend to protect themselves by distorting the communication process. Strong emotions rob individuals of their ability to comprehend.

• Communication goals

• Communication skills

FIGURE 5-12. Communication channels. Source: D. I. Cleland and H. Kerzner, Engineering Team Management (Melbourne, Florida: Krieger, 1986), p. 39.



FIGURE 5-13. Customer communications. Source: D. I. Cleland and H. Kerzner, Engineering Team Management (Melbourne, Florida: Krieger, 1986), p. 64.
FIGURE 5-14. Total communication process. Source: D. I. Cleland and H. Kerzner, Engineering Team Management (Melbourne, Florida: Krieger, 1986), p. 46.

• Frame of reference

• Sender credibility

• Personality and interests

• Interpersonal sensitivity

• Attitude, emotion, and self-interest

• Position and status

• Assumptions (about receivers)

• Existing relationships with receivers

Typical barriers that affect the decoding process include:

• Evaluative tendency

• Preconceived ideas

• Communication skills

• Frame of reference

• Personality and interest

• Attitudes, emotion, and self-interest

• Position and status

• Assumptions about sender

• Existing relationship with sender

• Lack of responsive feedback

• Selective listening

The receiving of information can be affected by the way the information is received. The most common ways include:

• Hearing activity

• Reading skills

• Visual activity

• Tactile sensitivity

• Olfactory sensitivity

• Extrasensory perception

The communications environment is controlled by both the internal and external forces, which can act either individually or collectively. These forces can either assist or restrict the attainment of project objectives. Typical internal factors include:

• Withholding information

• Management by memo

• Reactive emotional behavior

• Mixed messages

• Indirect communications

• Stereotyping

• Transmitting partial information

• Blocking or selective perception

Typical external factors include:

• The business environment

• The political environment

• The economic climate

• Regulatory agencies

• The technical state-of-the-art

The communications environment is also affected by:

• Logistics/geographic separation

• Personal contact requirements

• Group meetings

• Correspondence (frequency and quantity)

• Electronic mail

Noise tends to distort or destroy the information within the message. Noise results from our own personality screens, which dictate the way we present the message, and perception screens, which may cause us to "perceive" what we thought was said. Noise therefore can cause ambiguity:

• Ambiguity causes us to hear what we want to hear.

• Ambiguity causes us to hear what the group wants.

• Ambiguity causes us to relate to past experiences without being discriminatory.

In a project environment, a project manager may very well spend 90 percent or more of his or her time communicating. Typical functional applications include:

• Providing project direction

• Decision-making

• Authorizing work

• Directing activities

• Negotiating

• Reporting (including briefings)

• Attending meetings

• Overall project management

• Marketing and selling

• Public relations

• Records management

• Memos/letters/newsletters

• Specifications

• Contract documents

Project managers are required to provide briefings for both internal and external customers. Visual aids can greatly enhance a presentation. Their advantages include:

• Enlivening a presentation, which helps to capture and hold the interest of an audience.

• Adding a visual dimension to an auditory one, which permits an audience to perceive a message through two separate senses, thereby strengthening the learning process.

• Spelling out unfamiliar words by presenting pictures, diagrams, or objects, and by portraying relations graphically, which helps in introducing material that is difficult or new.

• Remaining in view much longer than oral statements can hang in the air, which can serve the same purpose as repetition in acquainting an audience with the unfamiliar and bringing back listeners who stray from the presentation.

Meetings can be classified according to their frequency of occurrence:

• The daily meeting where people work together on the same project with a common objective and reach decisions informally by general agreement.

• The weekly or monthly meeting where members work on different but parallel projects and where there is a certain competitive element and greater likelihood that the chairman will make the final decision himself or herself.

• The irregular, occasional, or special-project meeting, composed of people whose normal work does not bring them into contact and whose work has little or no relationship to that of the others. They are united only by the project the meeting exists to promote and motivated by the desire that the project succeed. Though actual voting is uncommon, every member effectively has a veto.

There are three types of written media used in organizations:

• Individually oriented media: These include letters, memos, and reports.

• Legally oriented media: These include contracts, agreements, proposals, policies, directives, guidelines, and procedures.

• Organizationally oriented media: These include manuals, forms, and brochures.

Because of the time spent in a communications mode, the project manager may very well have as his or her responsibility the process of communications management. Communications management is the formal or informal process of conducting or supervising the exchange of information either upward, downward, laterally or diagonally. There appears to be a direct correlation between the project manager's ability to manage the communications process and project performance.

The communications process is more than simply conveying a message; it is also a source for control. Proper communications let the employees in on the act because employees need to know and understand. Communication must convey both information and motivation. The problem, therefore, is how to communicate. Below are six simple steps:

• Think through what you wish to accomplish.

• Determine the way you will communicate.

• Appeal to the interest of those affected.

• Give playback on ways others communicate to you.

• Get playback on what you communicate.

• Test effectiveness through reliance on others to carry out your instructions.

Knowing how to communicate does not guarantee that a clear message will be generated. There are techniques that can be used to improve communications. These techniques include:

• Obtaining feedback, possibly in more than one form

• Establishing multiple communications channels

• Using face-to-face communications if possible

• Determining how sensitive the receiver is to your communications

• Being aware of symbolic meaning such as expressions on people's faces

• Communicating at the proper time

• Reinforcing words with actions

• Using a simple language

• Using redundancy (i.e., saying it two different ways) whenever possible

With every effort to communicate there are always barriers. The barriers include:

• Receiver hearing what he wants to hear. This results from people doing the same job so long that they no longer listen.

• Sender and receiver having different perceptions. This is vitally important in interpreting contractual requirements, statements of work, and proposal information requests.

• Receiver evaluating the source before accepting the communications.

• Receiver ignoring conflicting information and doing as he pleases.

• Words meaning different things to different people.

• Communicators ignoring nonverbal cues.

• Receiver being emotionally upset.

The scalar chain of command can also become a barrier with regard to in-house communications. The project manager must have the authority to go to the general manager or counterpart to communicate effectively. Otherwise, filters can develop and distort the final message.

Three important conclusions can be drawn about communications techniques and barriers:

• Don't assume that the message you sent will be received in the form you sent it.

• The swiftest and most effective communications take place among people with common points of view. The manager who fosters good relationships with his associates will have little difficulty in communicating with them.

• Communications must be established early in the project.

In a project environment, communications are often filtered. There are several reasons for the filtering of upward communications:

• Unpleasantness for the sender

• Receiver cannot obtain information from any other source

• To embarrass a superior

• Lack of mobility or status for the sender

• Insecurity

Communication is also listening. Good project managers must be willing to listen to their employees, both professionally and personally. The advantages of listening properly are that:

• Subordinates know you are sincerely interested

• You obtain feedback

• Employee acceptance is fostered.

The successful manager must be willing to listen to an individual's story from beginning to end, without interruptions, and to see the problem through the eyes of the subordinate. Finally, before making a decision, the manager should ask the subordinate for his solutions to the problem.

Project managers should ask themselves four questions:

• Do I make it easy for employees to talk to me?

• Am I sympathetic to their problems?

• Do I attempt to improve human relations?

• Do I make an extra effort to remember names and faces?

The project manager's communication skills and personality screen often dictates the communication style. Typical communication styles include:

• Authoritarian: gives expectations and specific guidance

• Promotional: cultivates team spirit

• Facilitating: gives guidance as required, noninterfering

• Conciliatory: friendly and agreeable, builds compatible team

• Judicial: uses sound judgment

• Secretive: not open or outgoing (to project detriment)

• Disruptive: breaks apart unity of group, agitator

• Intimidating: "tough guy," can lower morale

• Combative: eager to fight or be disagreeable

Team meetings are often used to exchange valuable and necessary information. The following are general guides for conducting more effective meetings:

• Start on time. If you wait for people, you reward tardy behavior.

• Develop agenda "objectives." Generate a list and proceed; avoid getting hung up on the order of topics.

• Conduct one piece of business at a time.

• Allow each member to contribute in his own way. Support, challenge, and counter; view differences as helpful; dig for reasons or views.

• Silence does not always mean agreement. Seek opinions: "What's your opinion on this, Peggy?"

• Be ready to confront the verbal member: "Okay, we've heard from Mike on this matter; now how about some other views?"

• Test for readiness to make a decision.

• Test for commitment to the decision.

• Assign roles and responsibilities (only after decision-making).

• Agree on follow-up or accountability dates.

• Indicate the next step for this group.

• Set the time and place for the next meeting.

• Ask yourself if the meeting was necessary.

Many times, company policies and procedures can be established for the development of communications channels. Table 5-4 illustrates such communications guidelines.

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Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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