Table Various Approaches To Quality Improvement

Crosby's 14 Steps to Quality Improvement

Deining s 14 Points for Management

Juran s 10 Steps to Quality Improvement

1. Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service.

2. Adopt the new philosophy.

3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality.

4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. Instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier.

5. Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production, and service.

6. Institute training on the job.

7. Adopt and institute leadership.

8. Drive out fear.

9. Break down barriers between staff areas.

10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force.

11. Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management.

12. Remove barriers that rob people of workmanship. Eliminate the annual rating or merit system.

13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone.

14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.

1. Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement.

2. Set goals for improvement.

3. Organize to reach the goals (establish a quality council, identify problems, select projects, appoint teams, designate facilitators).

4. Provide training.

5. Carry out projects to solve problems.

6. Report progress.

7. Give recognition.

8. Communicate results.

9. Keep score

10. Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company.

1. Make it clear that management is committed to quality.

2. Form quality improvement teams with representatives from each department.

3. Determine where current and potential quality problems lie.

4. Evaluate the cost of quality and explain its use as a management tool.

5. Raise the quality awareness and personal concern of all employees.

6. Take actions to correct problems identified through previous steps.

7. Establish a committee for the zero-defects program.

8. Train supervisors to actively carry out their part of the quality improvement program.

9. Hold a "zero-defects day" to let all employees realize that there has been a change.

10. Encourage individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their groups.

11. Encourage employees to communicate to management the obstacles they face in attaining their improvement goals.

12. Recognize and appreciate those who participate.

13. Establish quality councils to communicate on a regular basis.

14. Do it all over again to emphasize that the quality improvement program never ends.

• Quality of design: There may be many grades of quality

• Quality of conformance: Provide the proper training; products that maintain specification tolerances; motivation

• Availability: reliability (i.e., frequency of repairs) and maintainability (i.e., speed or ease of repair).

• Safety: The potential hazards of product use

• Field use: This refers to the way the product will be used by the customer

Dr. Juran also stressed the cost of quality (Section 20.8) and the legal implications of quality. The legal aspects of quality include:

• Criminal liability

• Civil liability

• Appropriate corporate actions

• Warranties

Juran believes that the contractor's view of quality is conformance to specification, whereas the customer's view of quality is fitness for use when delivered and value. Juran also admits that there can exist many grades of quality. The characteristics of quality can be defined as:

• Structural (length, frequency)

• Time-oriented (reliability, maintainability)

• Commercial (warrantee)

• Ethical (courtesy, honesty)

The third major contributor to quality was Phillip B. Crosby. Crosby developed his 14 Steps to Quality Improvement (see Table 20-2) and his Four Absolutes of Quality:

• Quality means conformance to requirements.

• Quality comes from prevention.

• Quality means that the performance standard is "zero defects."

• Quality is measured by the cost of nonconformance.

Crosby found that the cost of not doing things right the first time could be appreciable. In manufacturing, the price of nonconformance averages 40 percent of operating costs.

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