X and R charts: To observe changes in the mean and range (variance) of a process.
p chart: For the fraction of attributes nonconforming or defective in a sample of varying size.
X and s charts: For a variable average and standard deviation.
np charts: For the number of attributes nonconforming or defective in a sample of constant size.
X and s2 charts: for a variable average and variance.
c charts: For the number of attributes nonconforming or defects in a single item within a subgroup, lot, or sample area of constant size.
u charts: For the number of attributes nonconforming or defects in a single item within a subgroup, lot, or sample area of varying size.
sure the number or portion of defects in a single item. The c control chart is applied when the sample size or area is fixed, and the u chart when the sample size or area is not fixed.
Attribute charts. Although control charts are most often thought of in terms of variables, there are also versions for attributes. Attribute data have only two values (conform-ing/nonconforming, pass/fail, go/no-go, present/absent), but they can still be counted, recorded, and analyzed. Some examples are: the presence of a required label, the installation of all required fasteners, the presence of solder drips, or the continuity of an electrical circuit. We also use attribute charts for characteristics that are measurable, if the results are recorded in a simple yes/no fashion, such as the conformance of a shaft diameter when measured on a go/no-go gauge, or the acceptability of threshold margins to a visual or gauge check.
It is possible to use control charts for operations in which attributes are the basis for inspection, in a manner similar to that for variables but with certain differences. If we deal with the fraction rejected out of a sample, the type of control chart used is called a p chart. If we deal with the actual number rejected, the control chart is called an np chart. If articles can have more than one nonconformity, and all are counted for subgroups of fixed size, the control chart is called a c chart. Finally, if the number of nonconformities per unit is the quantity of interest, the control chart is called a u chart.
The power of control charts (Shewhart techniques) lies in their ability to determine if the cause of variation is a special cause that can be affected at the process level, or a common cause that requires a change at the management level. The information from the control chart can then be used to direct the efforts of engineers, technicians, and managers to achieve preventive or corrective action.
The use of statistical control charts is aimed at studying specific ongoing processes in order to keep them in satisfactory control. By contrast, downstream inspection aims to identify defects. In other words, control charts focus on prevention of defects rather than detection and rejection. It seems reasonable, and it has been confirmed in practice, that economy and efficiency are better served by prevention rather than detection.
Control Chart Components All control charts have certain features in common (Figure 20-23). Each control chart has a centerline, statistical control limits, and the calculated attribute or control data. Some control charts also contain specification limits.
The centerline is a solid (unbroken) line that represents the mean or arithmetic average of the measurements or counts. This line is also referred to as the X bar line (X). There are two statistical control limits: the upper control limit for values greater than the mean and the lower control limit for values less than the mean.
Specification limits are used when specific parametric requirements exist for a process, product, or operation. These limits usually apply to the data and are the pass/fail criteria for the operation. They differ from statistical control limits in that they are prescribed for a process, rather than resulting from the measurement of the process.
The data element of control charts varies somewhat among variable and attribute control charts. We will discuss specific examples as a part of the discussion on individual control charts.
Control Chart Interpretation There are many possibilities for interpreting various kinds of patterns and shifts on control charts. If properly interpreted, a control chart can tell us much more than whether the process is in or out of control. Experience and training can help extract clues regarding process behavior, such as that shown in Figure 20-24. Statistical guidance is invaluable, but an intimate knowledge of the process being studied is vital in bringing about improvements.
A control chart can tell us when to look for trouble, but it cannot by itself tell us where to look, or what cause will be found. Actually, in many cases, one of the greatest benefits from a control chart is that it tells when to leave a process alone. Sometimes the variability is increased unnecessarily when an operator keeps trying to make small
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