## Info

FIGURE 20-9. Check sheet for material receipt and inspection.

FIGURE 20-9. Check sheet for material receipt and inspection.

number of defects is 34. The highest number of defects is from supplier A, and the most frequent defect is incorrect test documentation. We can subject these data to further analysis by using Pareto analysis, control charts, and other statistical tools.

In this check sheet, the categories represent defects found during the material receipt and inspection function. The following defect categories provide an explanation of the check sheet:

• Incorrect invoices: The invoice does not match the purchase order.

• Incorrect inventory: The inventory of the material does not match the invoice.

• Damaged material: The material received was damaged and rejected.

• Incorrect test documentation: The required supplier test certificate was not received and the material was rejected.

Cause-and-Effect Analysis After identifying a problem, it is necessary to determine its cause. The cause-and-effect relationship is at times obscure. A considerable amount of analysis often is required to determine the specific cause or causes of the problem.

Cause-and-effect analysis uses diagramming techniques to identify the relationship between an effect and its causes. Cause-and-effect diagrams are also known as fishbone diagrams. Figure 20-10 demonstrates the basic fishbone diagram. Six steps are used to perform a cause-and-effect analysis.

Step 1. Identify the problem. This step often involves the use of other statistical process control tools, such as Pareto analysis, histograms, and control charts, as well as brain-storming. The result is a clear, concise problem statement.

Step 2. Select interdisciplinary brainstorming team. Select an interdisciplinary team, based on the technical, analytical, and management knowledge required to determine the causes of the problem.

Step 3. Draw problem box and prime arrow. The problem contains the problem statement being evaluated for cause and effect. The prime arrow functions as the foundation for their major categories.

Step 4. Specify major categories. Identify the major categories contributing to the problem stated in the problem box. The six basic categories for the primary causes of the problems are most frequently personnel, method, materials, machinery, measurements, and environment, as shown in Figure 20-10. Other categories may be specified, based on the needs of the analysis.

Step 5. Identify defect causes. When you have identified the major causes contributing to the problem, you can determine the causes related to each of the major categories. There are three approaches to this analysis: the random method, the systematic method, and the process analysis method.

Random method. List all six major causes contributing to the problem at the same time. Identify the possible causes related to each of the categories, as shown in Figure 20-11.

Systematic method. Focus your analysis on one major category at a time, in descending order of importance. Move to the next most important category only after completing the most important one. This process is diagrammed in Figure 20-12.

Process analysis method. Identify each sequential step in the process and perform cause-and-effect analysis for each step, one at a time. Figure 20-13 represents this approach.

Step 6. Identify corrective action. Based on (1) the cause-and-effect analysis of the problem and (2) the determination of causes contributing to each major category, identify corrective action. The corrective action analysis is performed in the same manner as the cause-and-effect analysis. The cause-and-effect diagram is simply reversed so that the problem box becomes the corrective action box. Figure 20-14 displays the method for identifying corrective action.