1. Making a call with one of your people to assist him in solving a technical problem.

2. Signing a check to approve a routine expenditure.

3. Conducting the initial screening interview of a job applicant.

4. Giving one of your experienced people your solution to a new problem without first asking for his recommendation.

5. Giving your solution to a recurring problem that one of your new people has just asked you about.

6. Conducting a meeting to explain to your people a new procedure.

7. Phoning a department to request help in solving a problem that one of your people is trying to solve.

8. Filling out a form to give one of your people a pay increase.

9. Explaining to one of your people why he is receiving a merit pay increase.

10. Deciding whether to add a position.

11. Asking one of your people what he thinks about an idea you have that will affect your people.

12. Transferring a desirable assignment from employee A to employee B because employee A did not devote the necessary effort.

13. Reviewing regular written reports to determine your people's progress toward their objectives.

14. Giving a regular progress report by phone to your supervisor.

15. Giving a tour to an important visitor from outside of your organization.

16. Drafting an improved layout of facilities.

17. Discussing with your key people the extent to which they should use staff services during the next year.

18. Deciding what your expense-budget request will be for your area of responsibility.

18. From Raymond O. Leon, Manage More by Doing Less (New York: McGraw-Hill), p. 4. Copyright © 1971 by McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York. Used with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Company.

_ __19. Attending a professional or industrial meeting to learn detailed technical developments.

_ __20. Giving a talk on your work activities to a local community group.

5-27 Below are three broad statements describing the functions of management. For each statement, are we referring to upper-level management, project management, or functional management?

a. Acquire the best available assets and try to improve them.

b. Provide a good working environment for all personnel.

c. Make sure that all resources are applied effectively and efficiently such that all constraints are met, if possible.

5-28 Decide whether you agree or disagree that, in the management of people, the project manager:

• Must convert mistakes into learning experiences.

• Acts as the lubricant that eases the friction (i.e., conflicts) between the functioning parts.

5-29 Functional employees are supposed to be the experts. A functional employee makes a statement that the project manager does not believe is completely true or accurate. Should the project manager support the team member? If so, for how long? Does your answer depend on to whom the remarks are being addressed, such as upper-level management or the customer? At what point should a project manager stop supporting his team members?

5-30 Below are four statements: two statements describe a function, and two others describe a purpose. Which statements refer to project management and which refer to functional management?

• Reduce or eliminate uncertainty

• Minimize and assess risk

• Create the environment (using transformations)

• Perform decision-making in the transformed environment

5-31 Manager A is a department manager with thirty years of experience in the company. For the last several years, he has worn two hats and acted as both project manager and functional manager on a variety of projects. He is an expert in his field. The company has decided to incorporate formal project management and has established a project management department. Manager B, a thirty-year-old employee with three years of experience with the company, has been assigned as project manager. In order to staff his project, manager B has requested from manager A that manager C (a personal friend of manager B) be assigned to the project as the functional representative. Manager C is twenty-six years old and has been with the company for two years. Manager A agrees to the request and informs manager C of his new assignment, closing with the remarks, "This project is yours all the way. I don't want to have anything to do with it. I'll be too busy with paperwork as the result of our new organizational structure. Just send me a memo once in a while telling me what's happening."

During the project kickoff meeting it became obvious to both manager B and manager C that the only person with the necessary expertise was manager A. Without the support of manager A, the time duration for project completion could be expected to double.

This situation is ideal for role playing. Put yourself in the place of managers A, B, and C and discuss the reasons for your actions. How can this problem be overcome? How do you get manager A to support the project? Who should inform upper-level management of this situation? When should upper-level management be informed? Would any of your answers change if manager B and manager C were not close friends?

5-32 Is it possible for a product manager to have the same degree of tunnel vision that a project manager has? If so, under what circumstances?

5-33 Your company has a policy that employees can participate in an educational tuition reimbursement program, provided that the degree obtained will benefit the company and that the employee's immediate superior gives his permission. As a project manager, you authorize George, your assistant project manager who reports directly to you, to take courses leading to an MBA degree.

Midway through your project, you find that overtime is required on Monday and Wednesday evenings, the same two evenings that George has classes. George cannot change the evenings that his classes are offered. You try without success to reschedule the overtime to early mornings or other evenings. According to company policy, the project office must supervise all overtime. Since the project office consists of only you and George, you must perform the overtime if George does not. How should you handle this situation? Would your answer change if you thought that George might leave the company after receiving his degree?

5-34 Establishing good interface relationships between the project manager and functional manager can take a great deal of time, especially during the conversion from a traditional to a project organizational form. Below are five statements that represent the different stages in the development of a good interface relationship. Place these statements in the proper order and discuss the meaning of each one.

a. The project manager and functional manager meet face-to-face and try to work out the problem.

b. Both the project and functional managers deny that any problems exist between them.

c. The project and functional managers begin formally and informally to anticipate the problems that can occur.

d. Both managers readily admit responsibility for several of the problems.

e. Each manager blames the other for the problem.

5-35 John is a functional support manager with fourteen highly competent individuals beneath him. John's main concern is performance. He has a tendency to leave scheduling and cost problems up to the project managers. During the past two months, John has intermittently received phone calls and casual visits from upper-level management and senior executives asking him about his department's costs and schedules on a variety of projects. Although he can answer almost all of the performance questions, he has experienced great difficulty in responding to time and cost questions. John is a little apprehensive that if this situation continues, it may affect his evaluation and merit pay increase. What are John's alternatives?

5-36 Projects have a way of providing a "chance for glory" for many individuals. Unfortunately, they quite often give the not-so-creative individual an opportunity to demonstrate his incompetence. Examples would include the designer who always feels that he has a better way of laying out a blueprint, or the individual who intentionally closes a door when asked to open it, or vice versa. How should a project manager handle this situation? Would your answer change if the individual were quite competent but always did the opposite just to show his individuality? Should these individuals be required to have close supervision? If close supervision is required, should it be the responsibility of the functional manager, the project office, or both?

5-37 Are there situations in which a project manager can wait for long-term changes instead of an immediate response to actions?

5-38 Is it possible for functional employees to have performed a job so long or so often that they no longer listen to the instructions given by the project or functional managers?

5-39 On Tuesday morning, the customer's project manager calls the subcontractor's project manager and asks him a question. On Tuesday afternoon, the customer's project engineer calls the contractor's project engineer and asks him the same question. How do you account for this? Could this be "planned" by the customer?

5-40 Below are eight common methods that project and functional employees can use to provide communications:

a. Counseling sessions b. Telephone conversation c. Individual conversation d. Formal letter e. Project office memo f. Project office directive g. Project team meeting h. Formal report

For each of the following actions, select one and only one means of communication from the above list that you would utilize in accomplishing the action:

1. Defining the project organizational structure to functional managers

2. Defining the project organizational structure to team members

3. Defining the project organizational structure to executives

4. Explaining to a functional manager the reasons for conflict between his employee and your assistant project managers

5. Requesting overtime because of schedule slippages

6. Reporting an employee's violation of company policy

7. Reporting an employee's violation of project policy

8. Trying to solve a functional employee's grievance

9. Trying to solve a project office team member's grievance

10. Directing employees to increase production

11. Directing employees to perform work in a manner that violates company policy

12. Explaining the new indirect project evaluation system to project team members

13. Asking for downstream functional commitment of resources

14. Reporting daily status to executives or the customer

15. Reporting weekly status to executives or the customer

16. Reporting monthly or quarterly status to executives or the customer

17. Explaining the reason for the cost overrun

18. Establishing project planning guidelines

19. Requesting a vice president to attend your team meeting

20. Informing functional managers of project status

21. Informing functional team members of project status

22. Asking a functional manager to perform work not originally budgeted for

23. Explaining customer grievances to your people

24. Informing employees of the results of customer interchange meetings

25. Requesting that a functional employee be removed from your project because of incompetence

5-41 Last month, Larry completed an assignment as chief project engineering on project X. It was a pleasing assignment. Larry, and all of the other project personnel, were continually kept informed (by the project manager) concerning all project activities. Larry is now working for a new project manager who tells his staff only what they have to know in order to get their job done. What can Larry do about this situation? Can this be a good situation?

5-42 Phase I of a program has just been completed successfully. The customer, however, was displeased because he always had to wait three weeks to a month after all tests were complete before data were supplied by the contractor.

For Phase II of the program, the customer is requiring that advanced quality control procedures be adhered to. This permits the customer's quality control people to observe all testing and obtain all of the raw data at the same time the contractor does. Is there anything wrong with this arrangement?

5-43 You are a subcontractor to company Z, who in turn is the prime contractor to company Q. Before any design review or technical interchange meeting, company Z requires that they review all material to be presented both in-house and with company Q prior to the meeting. Why would a situation such as this occur? Is it beneficial?

5-44 Referring to Problem 5-43, during contract negotiations between company Q and company Z, you, as project manager for the subcontractor, are sitting in your office when the phone rings. It is company Q requesting information to support its negotiation position. Should you provide the information?

5-45 How does a project manager find out if the project team members from the functional departments have the authority to make decisions?

5-46 One of your functional people has been assigned to perform a certain test and document the results. For two weeks you "hound" this individual only to find out that he is continually procrastinating on work in another program. You later find out from one of his co-workers that he hates to write. What should you do?

5-47 During a crisis, you find that all of the functional managers as well as the team members are writing letters and memos to you, whereas previously everything was verbal. How do you account for this?

5-48 Below are several problems that commonly occur in project organizations. State, if possible, the effect that each problem could have on communications and time management:

a. People tend to resist exploration of new ideas.

b. People tend to mistrust each other in temporary management situations.

c. People tend to protect themselves.

d. Functional people tend to look at day-to-day activities rather than long-range efforts.

e. Both functional and project personnel often look for individual rather than group recognition.

f. People tend to create win-or-lose positions.

5-49 How can executives obtain loyalty and commitments from horizontal and vertical personnel in a project organizational structure?

5-50 What is meant by polarization of communications? What are the most common causes?

5-51 Many project managers contend that project team meetings are flooded with agenda items, many of which may be irrelevant. How do you account for this?

5-52 Paul O. Gaddis ("The Project Manager," Harvard Business Review, May-June 1959, p. 90, copyright © 1959 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved) has stated that:

In learning to manage a group of professional employees, the usual boss-subordinate relationship must be modified. Of special importance, the how—the details or methods of work performance by a professional employee—should be established by the employee. It follows that he must be given the facts necessary to permit him to develop a rational understanding of the why of tasks assigned to him.

How would you relate this information to the employee?

5-53 The customer has asked to have a customer representative office set up in the same building as the project office. As project manager, you put the customer's office at the opposite end of the building from where you are, and on a different floor. The customer states that he wants his office next to yours. Should this be permitted, and, if so, under what conditions?

5-54 During an interchange meeting from the customer, one of the functional personnel makes a presentation stating that he personally disagrees with the company's solution to the particular problem under discussion and that the company is "all wet" in its approach. How do you, as a project manager, handle this situation?

5-55 Do you agree or disagree with the statement that documenting results "forces" people to learn?

5-56 Should a project manager encourage the flow of problems to him? If yes, should he be selective in which ones to resolve?

5-57 Is it possible for a project manager to hold too few project review meetings?

5-58 If all projects are different, should there exist a uniform company policies and procedures manual?

5-59 Of the ten items below, which are considered as part of directing and which are controlling?

a. Supervising b. Communicating c. Delegating d. Evaluating e. Measuring f. Motivating g. Coordinating h. Staffing i. Counseling j. Correcting

5-60 Which of the following items is not considered to be one of the seven Ms of management?

a. Manpower b. Money c. Machines d. Methods e. Materials f. Minutes g. Mission

5-61 Match the following leadership styles (source unknown):

1. Management by inaction

2. Management by detail

3. Management by invisibility

4. Management by consensus

5. Management by manipulation

6. Management by rejection

7. Management by survival

8. Management by depotism

9. Management by creativity 10. Management by leadership

Has an executive who manages with flair, wisdom, and vision. He listens to his people, prods them, and leads them.

Grows out of fear and anxiety. Can be fair or unfair, effective or ineffective, legitimate or illegitimate. Some people are manipulators of others for power. People are not puppets.

Is the roughly negative style. Executive always has ideas; devil's advocate. Well-prepared proponents can win—so such a boss can be stimulating.

Has an executive who needs every conceivable fact; is methodical and orderly; often is timid, inappropriate, or late.

Is good as long as it is based on reality. The executive has a trained instinct.

Has an executive who will do anything to survive—the jungle fighter. If it is done constructively, the executive will build instead of destroy. Is totalitarian. There are no clashes of ideas. The organization moves. Creative people flee. Employees always know who is boss.

Has an executive who is not around, has good subordinates, and works in an office, offstage.

Can be important in dealing with the unknown (R&D projects). Subordinates are independent and powerful. This style could be a substitute for decision-making. It is important for setting policy.

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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