Acceptance Sampling

Acceptance sampling is a statistical process of evaluating a portion of a lot for the purpose of accepting or rejecting the entire lot. It is an attempt to monitor the quality of the incoming product or material after the completion of production.

The alternatives to developing a sampling plan would be 100% inspection and 0% inspection. The costs associated with 100% are prohibitive, and the risks associated with 0% inspection are likewise large. Therefore, some sort of compromise is needed. The three most commonly used sampling plans are:

• Single sampling: This is the acceptance or rejection of a lot based upon one sampling run.

• Double sampling: A small sample size is tested. If the results are not conclusive, then a second sample is tested.

• Multiple sampling: This process requires the sampling of several small lots.

Regardless of what type of sampling plan is chosen, sampling errors can occur. A shipment of good-quality items can be rejected if a large portion of defective units are selected at random. Likewise, a bad-quality shipment can be accepted if the tested sample contains a disproportionately large number of quality items. The two major risks are:

• Producer's risk: This is called the a (alpha) risk or type I error. This is the risk to the producer that a good lot will be rejected.

• Consumer's risk: This is called the (3 (beta) risk or type II error. This is the consumer's risk of accepting a bad lot.

When a lot is tested for quality, we can look at either "attribute" or "variable" quality data. Attribute quality data are either quantitative or qualitative data for which the product or service is designed and built. Variable quality data are quantitative, continuous measurement processes to either accept or reject the lot. The exact measurement can be either destructive or nondestructive testing.

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment