Resourcebased method See resource leveling

resource breakdown structure (RBS) This is a hierarchical chart of resources that breaks down the work of the project according to the types of resources needed.

resource calendars Calendars are an input to the Develop Schedule process. Resource calendars refer to specific resources—or categories of resources—and their individual (or group) availability.

resource leveling Resource leveling is used when resources are overallocated. It attempts to smooth out the resource assignments so that tasks are completed without overloading the individual and without negatively affecting the project schedule. Some ways to perform resource leveling include delaying the start of a task to match the availability of a key team member or giving more tasks to underallocated members. Resource leveling is also known as the resource-based method.

resources Resources include the people, equipment, and materials needed to complete the work of the project.

responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) The RAM ties roles and responsibilities with the WBS elements to ensure that each element has a resource assigned.

reverse resource allocation scheduling This is a resource-leveling technique used when key resources are required at a specific point in the project and they are the only resources available to perform these activities. Reverse resource allocation scheduling requires that the resources be scheduled in reverse order, that is, from the end date of the project rather than from the beginning, in order to assign key resources at the correct time.

revisions These are adjustments to approved schedule start and end dates for activities to coincide with approved changes and/or corrective actions. This is another term for schedule updates.

rework Failing to meet quality requirements or standards might result in rework (performing the work again to make it conform). Rework might increase the project schedule.

risk breakdown structure (RBS) An RBS is a graphical way to display risk categories and their subcategories. The RBS is an element of the risk management plan.

risk categories Risk categories systematically identify risks and provide a foundation for understanding. The use of risk categories helps improve the Identify Risks process by giving everyone involved a common language or basis for describing risk. Risk categories are an element of the risk management plan.

risk management plan This describes how risks are defined, monitored, and controlled throughout the project. The risk management plan is a subsidiary of the project management plan, and it's the only output of the Project Risk Management process.

risk register This is the output of the Identify Risks process that contains the list of identified risks. The risk register is updated, and its update becomes an output of every remaining Risk process.

risk tolerance Risk tolerance is the level at which stakeholders are comfortable taking a risk because the benefits to be gained outweigh what could be lost or the level at which risks are avoided because the potential loss is too great.

rolling wave planning This is a process of fully elaborating near term WBS work packages and waiting to elaborate later term work packages until more information is known. It involves elaborating the work of the project to the level of detail known at the time.

run chart A run chart is a tool and technique of the Perform Quality Control process that is used to show variations in the process over time. A run chart might also show trends in the process.

Scatter diagrams Scatter diagrams are a tool and technique of the Perform Quality Control process. They use two variables—an independent variable, which is an input, and a dependent variable, which is an output—to display the relationship between these two elements as points on a graph.

schedule baseline The approved project schedule serves as the schedule baseline that will be used in the Executing and Monitoring and Controlling processes to measure schedule process.

schedule change control system This defines how changes to the schedule are made and managed. This tracks and records change requests, describes the procedures to follow to implement schedule changes, and details the authorization levels needed to approve the schedule changes.

schedule compression This is a form of mathematical analysis that's used to shorten the project schedule without changing the project scope. Compression is simply shortening the project schedule to accomplish all the activities sooner than estimated. Crashing and fast tracking are two examples of schedule compressions.

schedule network analysis This technique of Develop Schedule creates the project schedule. It uses a schedule model and other analytical techniques such as critical path and critical chain method, what-if analysis, and resource leveling (all of which are other tools and techniques in this process) to help calculate these dates and the project schedule.

schedule performance index (SPI) This is a performance index that calculates schedule performance efficiencies: SPI = EV / PV.

schedule updates Schedule updates are an output of the Control Schedule process and involve adjusting activities and dates to coincide with approved changes and/or corrective actions.

schedule variance (SV) This is an earned value analysis technique that determines whether the project schedule is ahead or behind what was planned for a given period of time: SV = EV - PV.

scope Scope includes all of the components that make up the product or service of the project and the results the project intends to produce. See also product scope and project scope.

scope creep This is changing the project or product scope without considering the impacts it will have to the project schedule, budget, and resources.

scope management plan See project scope management plan.

scope statement See project scope statement.

scoring model This is a project selection method used to score and rank project proposals. Scoring models might also be used in the Conduct Procurements process.

screening systems This is a set of predetermined performance criteria used to screen vendors. Screening systems are a proposal evaluation technique, which is a tool and technique of the Conduct Procurements process.

secondary risks These are risks that come about as a result of implementing a risk response.

seller invoices These are requests for the payment of goods or services that should describe the work that was completed or the materials that were delivered. Seller invoices are part of the Administer Procurements process.

seller rating systems Seller rating systems are part of the proposal evaluation tool and technique of the Conduct Procurements process. These systems use information about the sellers—such as past performance, delivery, contract compliance, and quality ratings—to determine seller performance.

sensitivity analysis This is a quantitative method of analyzing the potential impact of risk events on the project and determining which risk events have the greatest potential for impact by examining all the uncertain elements at their baseline values. This is a Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis modeling technique.

Sequence Activities This process sequences activities in logical order and determines whether dependencies exist among the activities.

share Share is a Plan Risk Responses strategy for risks that pose an opportunity to the project.

should cost estimates See independent estimates.

Six Sigma Six Sigma is a measurement-based strategy that focuses on process improvement and variation reduction by applying Six Sigma methodologies to the project. Six Sigma is a quality management approach that is similar to TQM and is typically used in manufacturing and service-related industries.

slack time This is the amount of time you can delay the early start of a task without delaying the finish date of the project. This is also known as float time.

smoothing Smoothing is a conflict resolution technique that is a temporary way to resolve conflict where someone attempts to make the conflict appear less important than it is.

soft logic See discretionary dependencies.

stakeholder This is an organization or person who has a vested interest in the project and stands to gain or lose something as a result of the project.

standard A standard employs rules, guidelines, or characteristics that should be followed. They are not mandatory but should be considered when developing the quality management plan.

starvation This is a type of project ending where financial or human resources are cut off from the project.

statement of work (SOW) The statement of work describes the product, service, or result the project was undertaken to complete. If the project is performed internally to the organization, this document is usually written by either the project sponsor or the initiator of the project. When the project is external to the organization, the buyer typically writes the SOW. The SOW should consider the business need for the project, the product scope description, and the organization's strategic plan.

statistical sampling This means making a sample number of parts from the whole population and examining them to determine whether they fall within the variances outlined in the quality management plan. Statistical sampling is a tool and technique of the Perform Quality Control process.

status review meetings Status meetings are a component of the Report Performance process. The purpose of status meetings is to provide updated information regarding the progress of the project. They are not show-and-tell meetings.

steering committee This is a group of high-level managers or executives in the organization who manage project prioritization and various project decisions. The steering committee typically represents functional areas or departments within the organization.

successor activities These are activities that follow predecessor activities.

tailoring This means determining which processes and process groups should be performed for the project. The project manager and project team should take into consideration the size and complexity of the project and the various inputs and outputs of each of the processes when determining which ones to perform. It's generally accepted that performing all five process groups is good practice for any project.

team building Team building activities are a tool and technique of the Develop Project Team process. They involve getting a diverse group of people to work together in the most efficient and effective manner possible.

technical performance measurements These measurements are usually determined during trend analysis (which is used with the run chart tool and technique of the Perform Quality Control process) to compare the technical accomplishments of project milestones completed to the technical milestones defined in the project Planning processes.

Theory X This is a motivational management theory that proposes that most people do not like work and will try to steer clear of it. It postulates that people have little to no ambition, need constant supervision, and won't actually perform the duties of their job unless threatened.

Theory Y This is a motivational management theory that proposes that people are interested in performing their best given the right motivation and proper expectations.

three-point estimates Three-point estimates are a tool and technique of the Estimate Activity Durations process used to determine activity estimates. The three estimates are the most likely estimate, an optimistic estimate, and a pessimistic estimate.

time and materials (T&M) contract This is a type of contract that is a cross between the fixed-price contract and the cost-reimbursable contract. Preset unit rates are agreed to at contract signing, but costs are charged to the buyer as they're incurred.

time-phased budget The cost performance baseline is the authorized time-phased budget for the project. Time-phased budgets disburse funds at different periods throughout the life of the project.

to-complete performance index (TCPI) The to-complete performance index (TCPI) is the projected performance level the remaining work of the project must meet in order to satisfy a management goal such as meeting BAC or EAC.

tolerable results These are quality measurements that fall within a specified range. Tolerable results are a concern of the Perform Quality Control process. These are also known as tolerances.

top-down estimating See analogous estimating.

tornado diagram This is a diagramming method for sensitivity analysis data. The variables with the greatest effect on the project are displayed as horizontal bars at the top of the graph and decrease in impact as they progress down through the graph. This gives a quick overview of how much the project can be affected by uncertainty in the various elements and which risks have the greatest impact on the project.

total float This is the amount of time the earliest start of a task can be delayed without delaying the ending of the project.

Total Quality Management (TQM) W. Edwards Deming is considered the founder of TQM. This quality theory states that the process is the problem, not people. TQM stipulates that quality must be managed in and that quality improvement should be a continuous process, not a one-time task.

training This tool and technique of the Develop Project Team process improves the competencies of the project team members.

transfer Transference is a strategy for negative risks or threats, which is a tool and technique of the Plan Risk Responses process. This strategy transfers the consequences of a risk to a third party. Insurance is an example of transference.

triggers These are risk symptoms that imply a risk event is about to occur. Triggers can also be referred to as symptoms or warning signs.

variance at completion (VAC) This is an earned value analysis technique that calculates the difference between the budget at completion (BAC) and the estimate at completion (EAC): VAC = BAC - EAC.

Verify Scope This process formalizes the acceptance of the project scope and is primarily concerned with the acceptance of work results.

virtual teams Virtual teams are teams that don't necessarily work in the same location but all share the goals of the project and have a role on the project. This type of team allows the inclusion of resources from different geographic locations, those who work different hours or shifts from the other team members, those with mobility limitations, and so on.

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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