Programs are groups of related projects that are managed using the same techniques in a coordinated fashion. When projects are managed collectively as programs, it's possible to capitalize on benefits that wouldn't be achievable if the projects were managed separately. This would be the case where a very large program exists with many subprojects under it—for example, building a new shopping mall. Many subprojects exist underneath this program, such as excavation, construction, interior design, store placement, marketing, facilities management, and so on. Each of the subprojects is really a project unto itself. Each subproject has its own project manager, who reports to a project manager with responsibility over several of the areas, who in turn reports to the head project manager who is responsible for the entire program. All the projects are related and are managed together so that collective benefits are realized and controls are implemented and managed in a coordinated fashion. Sometimes programs involve aspects of ongoing operations as well. After the shopping mall in our example is built, the management of the facility becomes an ongoing operation. The management of this collection of projects—determining their interdepen-dencies, managing among their constraints, and resolving issues among them—is called program management. Program management also involves centrally managing and coordinating groups of related projects to meet the objectives of the program.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.