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PM Milestone Project Management Templates

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Glossary

Numbers

360-degree review This is a form of project performance appraisal (a tool and technique of the Manage Project process) that solicits feedback from everyone the team member interacts with, including the stakeholders, customers, project manager, peers, subordinates, and others.

acceptance Acceptance is a strategy for threats or opportunities and is part of a tool and technique of the Plan Risk Responses process. This strategy implies that the organization is willing to accept the consequences of the risk should it occur.

acceptance criteria Acceptance criteria refers to the product of the project and includes the process and the criteria that will be used to determine whether the deliverables and the final product or service of the project are acceptable and satisfactory.

Achievement Theory This motivational theory says people are motivated by the need for three things: achievement, power, and affiliation.

Acquire Project Team This process involves attaining human resources and assigning them to the project. Human resources may come from inside or outside the organization. Acquire the Project Team belongs to the Executing process group.

activity attributes Activity attributes describe the characteristics of activities, such as the activity identifier or code, descriptions, constraints and assumptions associated with the activity, predecessor activities, successor activities, resource requirements, the individual responsible for completing the work, and so on. The activity attributes are an extension of the activity list and are used in the schedule model tool and technique of the Develop Schedule process.

activity duration estimates Activity duration estimates are quantifiable estimates of the number of work periods needed to complete the schedule activities listed. They are an output of the Estimate Activity Durations process.

activity list This is an extension of the WBS that contains all the activities of the project and a description of each activity. The activity list is an output of the Define Activities process.

activity on arrow (AOA) This is a diagramming method that places activities on arrows, which connect to dependent activities using nodes. This is also known as the arrow diagramming method.

activity on node (AON) This is a diagramming method that places activities on nodes, which connect to dependent activities using arrows. This is also known as the precedence diagramming method.

actual cost (AC) This is the actual cost of work to date or during a given time period, including direct and indirect costs.

addition This is a type of project ending where the project evolves into an ongoing operation.

Administer Procurements This process involves monitoring vendor performance and ensuring that all the requirements of the contract are met.

advertising This is the act of informing potential vendors that an RFP, RFQ, and so on is available. This is a tool and technique of the Conduct Procurements process.

alternatives identification This is a technique used to discover different methods or ways of accomplishing the project. Alternatives identification is a tool and technique of the Define Scope process.

analogous estimating This technique uses the actual duration of a similar, completed activity to determine the duration of the current activity. This is also called top-down estimating and uses both expert judgment and historical information.

appeals See contested changes.

appraisal costs Appraisal costs are the costs expended to examine the product or process and make certain the requirements are being met. Appraisal costs might include costs associated with aspects such as inspections and testing.

approval requirements Approval requirements refer to how the objectives, deliverables, project management documents, and other outcomes and results of the project will be approved.

arbitration This is a negotiation technique used to settle contract disputes. All parties come to the table with a third, disinterested party who is not a participant in the contract to try to reach an agreement. The purpose of arbitration is to reach an agreement without having to go to court.

arrow diagramming method (ADM) This is a diagramming method that places activities on arrows, which connect to dependent activities using nodes. This is also known as activity on arrow.

assumption This is an event or action believed to be true. Project assumptions should always be documented.

attributes These are measurements of deliverables (or certain characteristics of the deliverable) that meet one of two options: conforming or nonconforming. Conforming meets the requirement; nonconforming does not. This is an inspection technique (which is a tool and technique) of the Perform Quality Control process.

avoid The avoid strategy is used for risks that pose threats to the project or have negative impacts. It's part of a tool and technique of the Plan Risk Responses process. This strategy requires changes to the project plan in order to avoid or eliminate risk events and their impacts to the project objectives.

backward pass This is a calculation used in CPM to determine late start and late finish dates for activities.

balanced matrix This is a type of organizational structure where power is balanced between project managers and functional managers.

bar charts This is a method of displaying schedule activities. See also Gantt charts.

benchmarking Benchmarking is a process of comparing previous similar activities to the current project activities to provide a standard to measure performance against.

benefit measurement methods This is a category of project selection methods, which are a tool and technique of the Develop Project Charter process. They employ various forms of analysis and comparative approaches to make project decisions and include cost-benefit analysis, scoring models, benefit contribution methods, and economic models.

bidder conferences Meetings with prospective vendors or sellers are held prior to the completion of their response proposal to clarify project objectives and answer questions. Bidder conferences are a tool and technique of the Conduct Procurements process.

brainstorming This is an information-gathering technique that is a tool and technique of the Identify Risks process. It involves assembling in one place subject matter experts, team members, risk management team members, and anyone else who might benefit from the process and querying them on possible risk events.

budget at completion (BAC) This is the sum of all the budgets established for all the work of the project, the work package, the control account, or the schedule activity. It's the total planned value for the work component or project. This figure is used in earned value analysis calculations.

buffer See reserve time.

calculation methods This is a category of selection methods outlined in the project selection methods tool and technique of the Initiation process. Calculation methods provide a way to calculate the value of the project. This value is used in the project selection decision-making process.

cardinal scale This is a scale of values that are linear or nonlinear and referenced in the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process.

cause-and-effect diagram This diagram shows the relationship between the effects of problems and their causes. It depicts every potential cause and subcause of a problem and the effect that each proposed solution will have on the problem. This diagram is also called a fishbone diagram or an Ishikawa diagram.

change control board (CCB) This is a team of stakeholders that is established by the organization and given the authority via the configuration management system to review all change requests and approve them or deny them.

change control system This includes documented procedures that describe how to submit change requests and how to manage change requests. The change control system tracks the status of change requests and defines the level of authority needed to approve changes. It describes the management impacts of the changes as they pertain to project performance. Change control systems are a subset of the configuration management system.

chart of accounts The organization's accounting system. Control accounts associated with the WBS are linked to the chart of accounts.

checklists Checklists can be used with the Plan Quality, Perform Quality Control, and Identify Risk process. They outline a series of required steps a particular process must follow.

claims See contested changes.

claims administration Claims administration involves documenting, monitoring, and managing contested changes to the contract.

Close Procurements This process is concerned with completing and settling the terms of the contract and determines whether the work described in the contract was completed accurately and satisfactorily. This process is performed after Close Project or Phase, but its output (contract file) becomes an input to the Close Project or Phase process (contract documentation).

Close Project or Phase This process is concerned with gathering and disseminating information to formalize project closure. The completion of each project phase requires that Close Project or Phase is performed as well.

close project procedures Close project procedures is a document that outlines how Close Project or Phase procedures will occur on the project, the activities needed to perform the close procedures, and the essential roles and responsibilities. This is an output of the Direct and Manage Project Execution process.

Closing This is the last of the five project management process groups. Closing brings a formal, orderly end to the activities of a project phase or to the project itself. All the project information is gathered and archived for future reference. Contract closeout occurs here, and formal acceptance and approval are obtained from project stakeholders.

code of accounts These are unique identifiers assigned to each level of the WBS that are associated with the corporation's chart of accounts. The chart of accounts tracks project costs by category.

collaborating This is a conflict resolution technique that allows multiple viewpoints to be discussed and all perspectives of an issue examined. Collaborating can lead to true consensus and commitment when performed correctly.

Collect Requirements The purpose of the Collect Requirements process is to define and document the project sponsor, customer, and stakeholder's expectations and needs for meeting the project objective. You will use requirements to manage customer expectations throughout the project.

co-location Team members physically working at the same location or holding project meetings in a common area such as a war room.

common causes of variances These are process variances seen during the Perform Quality Control process that result in random variances, known or predictable variances, or variances that are always present in the process.

communication This is the process of exchanging information. There are three elements to all communication: the sender, the message, and the receiver. Communication can be written or verbal and formal or informal. A project manager spends 90 percent of their time communicating.

communications management plan This plan documents the types of stakeholder information needs, when and how frequently the information should be distributed, and the method of communication.

compromise Compromise is a conflict resolution technique. Compromise is achieved when each of the parties involved in the conflict gives up something to reach a solution.

Conduct Procurements This process involves obtaining bids and proposals from vendors in response to RFPs and similar documents prepared during the Plan Procurements process.

configuration management Configuration management is concerned with centrally managing approved changes and project baselines. It is concerned with the specifications of the deliverables and processes.

conflict Conflict is the incompatibility of goals, which often leads to one party resisting or blocking the other party from attaining their goals.

conflict of interest Conflict of interest occurs when personal interests are put above the interests of the project. It also occurs when personal influence is used to cause others to make decisions in favor of the influencer without regard for the project outcome.

confrontation This conflict resolution technique, also known as problem solving, is the most often used conflict resolution technique by project managers. This is a win-win technique because it concentrates on finding all the facts about the issue and continues to examine solutions until the right one surfaces.

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Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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