The outputs of the Control Scope process are as follows:
■ Work performance measurements
■ Organizational process assets updates
■ Change requests
■ Project management plan updates
■ Project document updates
Changes to scope will likely require that you repeat some of the project Planning processes and make any needed adjustments, including updating the project documents. Scope changes require an update to the project scope statement. This may require an update to the WBS and WBS dictionary as well. Pop quiz: what are the scope statement, WBS, and WBS dictionary collectively known as? Answer: the scope baseline. Scope baseline updates are part of the project management plan updates output of this process.
Scope changes include any changes to the project scope as defined by the agreed-upon WBS. This in turn might require changes or updates to project objectives, costs, quality measures or controls, performance measurements baselines, or time in the form of schedule revisions. Scope changes almost always affect project costs and/or require schedule revisions.
Schedule revisions are almost always needed as a result of scope changes. But not all scope changes lengthen the project schedule. Some scope changes (a reduction in overall project requirements, for example) might reduce the number of hours needed to complete the project, which in turn might reduce the project budget. This most often occurs when the schedule is the primary constraint on the project and the start or end dates cannot be changed.
When scope changes are requested, all areas of the project should be investigated to determine what the changes will impact. The project team should perform estimates of the impact and of the amount of time needed to make the change. Sometimes, however, the change request is so extensive that even the time to perform an estimate should be evaluated before proceeding. In other words, if the project team is busy working on estimates, they aren't working on the project. That means extensive change requests could impact the existing schedule because of the time and effort needed just to evaluate the change. Cases like these require you to make a determination or ask the change control board (CCB) to decide whether the change is important enough to allow the project team time to work on the estimates.
Always remember to update your stakeholders regarding the changes you're implementing and their impacts. They'll want to know how the changes impact the performance baselines, including the project costs, project schedule, project scope, and quality.
This process concludes the Monitoring and Controlling process groups. You'll look at the Closing processes in the next chapter.
Real World Scenario
Project Case study: New Kitchen Heaven Retail store
Stakeholders have asked for an updated status on the project schedule as well as a remaining cost projection. You decide to provide several cost and schedule performance figures for the project on the status report.
"Build-out is behind schedule. They were scheduled to be completed by the 15th of January, but they aren't going to finish up until the 24th."
"What's that going to do to my schedule?" Jill asks. "I'm starting interviews for the store positions on the 16th. I hope to have that wrapped up by the 19th. As long as I have the majority of the staff hired by the 20th, we can have them stocking shelves starting the 22nd."
"Let's finish up the status of the other items, and I'll come back to that."
You've calculated some performance measurements, including earned value measures, and you show them to Jill and Dirk (all figures are in millions of dollars):
■ BAC = 2; PV = 1.86; cumulative EV = 1.75; cumulative AC = 1.70
"What is all this telling us?" Dirk asks.
"The cost performance index tells us we're getting a good return for the money spent on the project so far. In other words, we've experienced a $1.03 value for every dollar spent to date," you respond.
"The schedule performance index isn't as cheery, but it's not dreadful news either. This performance indicator says that work is progressing at 94 percent of what we anticipated by this point.
"The estimate at completion tells us that based on what we know today, the total project will cost $1.94 million. That's coming in under the original $2 million we had budgeted for completion, so we're on track with the project budget. The last figure is the estimated cost of the remaining work."
"It looks like we're a little behind schedule based on what you have figured here," Dirk says.
"Yes, that's correct," you reply. "That brings us back to Jill's question. I have two alternatives to propose. One, we overlap the schedule and allow Gomez's crew to complete their work while Jill's staff starts stocking shelves."
Jill says, "I don't like this option. We'll be tripping over each other, and I don't want merchandise damaged by workers who are still dragging equipment around inside the store. What's your other option?"
"We could ask Gomez to increase the crew size so that they complete on time according to the contract. We have a provision in the contract that stipulates they add crew members if it looks as though they'll miss the scheduled completion date. I will instruct the contract management department to inform Gomez that we're requiring additional crew members."
"That will do the trick," Jill says. "We need the storefront to ourselves when stocking and preparing for opening. I'm glad you had that stipulation in the contract."
You report that sign-off has been obtained for the completed deliverables to date. Quality inspections and comparisons of the deliverables to the acceptance criteria were completed to Jill and Ricardo's satisfaction on the work performed to date.
Project Case Study Checklist
■ Control Costs
■ Cost change control system
■ Performance measurement analysis
■ Control Schedule
■ Schedule compression
■ Verified work results
■ Perform Quality Control
■ Assured quality requirements were met
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.