Project Management Body of Knowledge

In the United States and Canada, the Project Management Institute (PMI) hac published in 1987 The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) and has continued to updaté the original document since then. [The most re cent update, published in 1996 is referred to as the PMBOK Guide.] The ob jective was to establish project management as a unique discipline and inde pendent profession. Consequently, the PMBOK strived to represent a set o generic (across industries) project jtnanagement standards.

Here we attempt to examine selected practices of New York City's sludge management program against concepts and definitions within the PMBOK.

Sensitive Land Uses

Populated Areas Airports

Government Land Parks

Mineral/Energy Resources


Primary Water Supply Principal Aquifers Surface Water




Agricultural Districts Prime Agricultural Soils Soil Characteristics


Endangered Species Figure 7 Preferred Sites Selection Screening Criteria

On Project Life Cycle

According to the 1987 PMBOK edition, in the framework of time and level of effort as variables, project life-cycle is represented graphically as a bell-shaped curve skewed towards the direction of passing time. Further, the 1987 PMBOK edition prescribed for the project life-cycle "four sequential phases in time through which any project passes, namely, concept; development; execution; and finishing. ... These phases may be further broken down into stages depending on the area of project application."

In a significant departure, a 1993 PMBOK revision would define the project life-cycle as a "collection of phases whose number and names are determined by the control needs of the performing organization."

New York City's sludge management program is frequently described as three sequential phases and inconsistent with the 1987 PMBOK edition prescriptions. The 1993 revision eliminated the inconsistencies between the sludge management program and PMBOK with respect to project life-cycle.

On Work Breakdown Structure

According to the 1987 PMBOK edition, work breakdown structure (WBS) is a task-oriented "family tree" of activities which organizes, defines, and graphically displays the total work to be accomplished in order to achieve the final objectives of a project. Each descending level rn nts an increas-

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m ingly detailed definition of the project objective. It is a system for subdividing a project into manageable work packages, components, or elements to provide a common framework for scope/cost/schedule communications, allocation of responsibility, monitoring, and management.

Consistent with PMBOK guidelines, New York City's sludge management program utilizes a four-level WBS. A terminology difference is noted, namely, "Project/Categories/Tasks/Subtasks," as opposed to "Project/Work Packages/Components/Elements/' Further investigation is called for to identify a preferred number of task hierarchy levels as a function of project size Also, it seems within reach to give more rigorous task-level definitions, including a uniform numerical code system.

We failed to identify within PMBOK a direct reference to marketing in pro ject management or marketing derivatives such as demand identificatioi and demand forecasting, areas of significant preoccupation by project man agement personnel in the sludge management program.

We were able to identify elements of the massive site selection process con ducted in the sludge management program with PMBOK definitions of fea sibility studies and economic evaluation associated with the cost manage ment area. However, such definitions appeared to be too general to support; performance evaluation attempt of the site selection process.

1. City of New York, Department of Environmental Protection. 1989. New York City's Sludge Disposal Management Plans, liiesday, May 16.

2. City of New York, Department of Environmental Protection. 1990. "Environmental Mega-Project Underway/' NYC Sludge News, Fall.

3. City of New York, Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Wastewater Treatment. Facilities Planning Project for Development of a Land-Based Municipal Sewage Sludge Management Plan. Executive Summary, Capital Project No. WP-284.

4. Duncan, W. R., 1993. "Toward A Revised PMBOK Document." Project Man agement Journal 24, no. 2, June.

5. House of Representatives, 100th Congress Second Session. 1988. Report 100-109. Ocean Dumping Ban Act, Committee of Conference Reports. Oct. 18.

6. Lutzic, G. N.; 1990. "Land-Based Sludge Management in the Big Apple: A Status Report." Department of Environmental Protection, New York City. Paper presented at the WPCF Specialty Conference on Residuals Management, New Orleans, LA, Dec. 2-5.

7. PMI Standards Committee. 1987. Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). Drexel Hill, PA.: Project Management Institute, Sept.

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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