This is just a reminder that integration occurs at different scales, or has different perspectives. This makes decision making difficult in a complex company facing many trade-offs in its management of multiprojects.
Integration occurs at five levels—global, industry, company, program, and project.
Global. The global scale of integration, which works in the regime of global markets, supply chains, and new product development. Thomas Friedman's book, The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty First Century, reminds us that we are passing through the business based, global economy and moving into a new era of individual-based information sharing and open source partnering that has no limits. Project management will be different in this new flat world, and project integration will be increasingly instantaneous and virtual.
Industry. Integrating with industry standards and the state of the art in the markets served.
Company. Company or organizational integration is the successful combination of program and project work with the assortment of supporting organizational "assets," as PMI calls them, the systems that support integration.
Program. Since a program is an integrated set of related projects and/or phases, integration of project work within a program is accomplished by a program manager to assure that the system outcome is consistent with customer requirements.
Project. Project integration is the internal coordination and integration practice of the project team, working with each other in a seamless and open system.
Was this article helpful?
What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.