Gareth Morgan made the concept of "reading" an organization popular in Images of Organization. His breakthrough analysis of organizations using metaphors provides a useful backdrop for viewing the challenges of program and project integration management. The higher the level of visibility in the organization, the more important it is to be able to read the project and the parent organization. Reading in this sense means seeing the full dynamics of many projects and decisions in perspective, judging the collective results and impacts of the "tyranny of small decisions." Good project managers make decisions on the basis of integrating the factors and variables they see in the larger context, requiring them to think terms of integration.
Integration mixes art and science, intuition and data. Managers must make decisions with incomplete information; thus integration is both analytical and interpersonal. Analysis provides data on real impacts, but sometimes a full picture of the complete dynamics of a project cannot be provided with data and information. Thus integration usually requires communication with key people who can read the impacts at their accountability level, e.g., how project decisions will affect project finances.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.