1. Administrative closure procedures. This procedure contains all the activities and the related roles and responsibilities of the project team members involved in executing the administrative closure procedure. The procedures to transfer the project products or services to production and/or operations are developed and established. This procedure provides a step-by-step methodology for administrative closure that addresses
■ Actions and activities to define the stakeholder approval requirements for changes and all levels of deliverables.
■ Actions and activities that are necessary to confirm that the project has met all sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders' requirements, verify that all deliverables have been provided and accepted, and validate that completion and exit criteria have been met.
■ Actions and activities necessary to satisfy completion or exit criteria for the project.
2. Contract closure procedure. This procedure is developed to provide a step-by-step methodology that addresses the terms and conditions of the contracts and any required completion or exit criteria for contract closure. It contains all activities and related responsibilities of the project team members, customers, and other stakeholders involved in the contract closure process. The actions performed formally close all contacts associated with the completed project.
3. Final product, service, or result. Formal acceptance and handover of the final product, service, or result that the project was authorized to produce. The acceptance includes receipt of a formal statement that the terms of the contract have been met.
4. Organizational process assets (updates). Closure will include the development of the index and location of project documentation using the configuration management system.
■ Formal acceptance documentation. Formal confirmation has been received from the customer or sponsor that customer requirements and specifications for the project's product, service, or result have been met. This document formally indicates that the customer or sponsor has officially accepted the deliverables.
■ Project files. Documentation resulting from the project's activities, for example, project management plan, scope, cost, schedule and quality baselines, project calendar, risk registers, planned risk response actions, and risk impact.
■ Project closure documentation. Project closure documents consist of formal documentation indicating completion of the project and the transfer of the completed project deliverables to others, such as an operations group. If the project was terminated prior to completion, the formal documentation indicates why the project was terminated and formalizes the procedures for the transfer of the finished and unfinished deliverables of the cancelled project to others.
■ Historical information. Historical information and lessons learned from information are transferred to the lessons learned knowledge base for use by future projects.
In practice, closeout is often discounted by project managers and management in general as an administrative process, not worthy of much attention by substantive team members. Things have changed on that note. Now closeout is seen as the process of complying with Sarbanes-Oxley and the audit process to make sure that project work and expenditures are documented and traceable to customer requirements and project related expenditures.
Case Study of PMBOK Implementation: Integrated Transportation System
Using an integrated transportation system project case and the Microsoft Project schedule (Fig. 2.1), we will explore the application of the PMI PMBOK and other industry standards for integration. A Microsoft Project schedule for the case serves to illustrate how the work breakdown structure (WBS) is translated to project tasks, schedule, budget, and resource assignments.
This transportation program, entitled the Integrated Transportation System, involves the design and development of a product, a new transportation vehicle concept that will incorporate a controlled, line haul highway system for urban transportation. The case is scheduled into Microsoft Project and will be discussed, task level by task level to illustrate integration issues and opportunities in a typical such project. This product development project is organized in the stage-gateway framework, with entry from one stage to another controlled by an integration gateway review. This integration gateway review assesses progress, change, and impacts from each stage and provides the basis for a "go" or "no go" decision to proceed to the next stage.
The program is being developed in ITS, Inc., a research and development firm that designs transportation systems. Program stages are defined as separated projects to be integrated forward to the final program product. Forward integration is the process of looking forward to delivery rather than backwards to align with original baseline plans. Forward integration is based on earned value, that is, taking where we are in a project in both schedule and cost terms, and planning for remaining work. The scheduled tasks serve as the basis for this analysis in Figure 2.1.
Note that the gateway decision to proceed to the next stage is the summary output of each stage, thus highlighting the process of building in each stage to a proceed or terminate decision.
Was this article helpful?
What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.