Integration is addressed in a wide variety of quality standards for corporate management, and for program and project management, including the Project Management Institute PMBOK, the National Baldrige Quality Award, the PMI OPM 3 maturity model, balanced scorecard, and critical chain concepts. Along with increasing complexity in systems and projects, and the challenge of putting together the efforts of global outsourcing teams, the concept of integration becomes more and more important to achieve "cheaper, better, faster" project cycles.
For instance, the National Baldrige Quality Award criteria are used by many companies as benchmarks for best practice in integrating planning, operations, and project/process management. The Baldrige criteria address integration in terms of alignment and consistency of purpose and in the measurement of outcomes. For instance, the 2004 criteria state for health services organizations reads:
This item examines your organization's selection, management, and use of data and information for performance measurement and analysis in support of organizational planning and performance improvement . . . This performance improvement includes efforts to improve health care results and outcomes (e.g., through the selection of statistically meaningful indicators, risk adjustment of data, and linking outcomes to processes and provider decisions). The item serves as a central collection and analysis point in an integrated performance measurement and management system that relies on clinical, financial, and non-financial data and information. The aim of measurement and analysis is to guide your organization's process management toward the achievement of key organizational performance results and strategic objectives.
Alignment and integration are key concepts for successful implementation of your performance measurement system. They are viewed in terms of extent and effectiveness of use to meet your performance assessment needs. Alignment and integration include how measures are aligned throughout your organization, how they are integrated to yield organization-wide data/information, and how performance measurement requirements are deployed by your senior leaders to track departmental, work group, and process-level performance on key measures targeted for organization-wide significance and/or improvement. (2004 Baldrige Award Health Criteria, p. 40).
Translated to the project management environment, the Baldrige criteria stress the importance of selecting projects which implement business goals and plans, making sure that outcomes of multiproject portfolios and business processes such as project planning and control are tied together through alignment with the business direction.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.