DP in the ACIC Project

Now let's look at the DP process for the ACIC case study. Defect data after the first construction iteration were analyzed, and the frequency of the various types of defects is shown in Table 11.7. Figure 11.7 shows the Pareto chart for the defect data.

Figure 11.7. Pareto chart for defects

Figure 11.7. Pareto chart for defects

The main purpose of defect prevention activities is to reduce the defect injection rate. In the first iteration, the ACIC project manager knew that at least 57 defects were injected. From the effort data, he calculated the defect injection rate for the build phase as 0.33 defects per hour. As per the plan, it was expected that about 70% of the defects would be injected in the build activity, whose estimated effort was about 110 days (excluding the estimate for the rework effort). That is, as per the quality and effort plan, the defect injection rate during coding was expected to be around 0.1 defects per person-hour. But after the first iteration, the defect injection rate was three times that much! Clearly, defect prevention activities were needed to achieve the target.

Table 11.6. Root Causes and Proposed Solutions for the ACE Project

Root Cause

Preventive Actions

Assigned to

Implementation Date

Standards not followed

• Do a group reading of the standards (after they have been updated).

• Ensure that standards are followed in the mock projects done.



Standards/checklists not documented well

• Do a group review of the standards with expert from outside and then update the standards.


Next week

Oversight (incomplete attention)

• Effective self-review

• Rigorous code reviews


Immediate effect Immediate effect

Unclear/incorrect specifications

• Specification reviews


Immediate effect

Lack of training

• Every new entrant will do a mock project, whose code will be reviewed and tested thoroughly.

• A detailed specification and test plan will be made for the same.



Technical problems

• Create awareness in people about the problems with the tools and how to

• Write a BOK on this and make it available.

Lack of technical skills

• Document a BOK on topics like



Sheridan grids, recordsets, Active


To reduce the defect injection rate significantly, the project manager decided to tackle the top three categories of defects: logic, standards, and redundant code. A brainstorming session was held to identify the root causes and possible preventive actions. The regular procedure for brainstorming was followed. First, all the possible causes that anyone suggested were listed, and then the ones that were identified as the main culprits were separated out. For these causes, possible preventive actions were discussed and finally agreed on. Table 11.8 shows the final result of the causal analysis meeting—namely, the main root causes and preventive actions to be implemented. Many of these preventive actions became schedulable activities and were added to the project schedule and then later executed (those assigned to "self" were monitored informally).

Table 11.7. Summary of Defect Data after First Iteration, ACIC Project

Defect Type

Number of Defects





Redundant code








The preventive actions given in the table are proposals by the team members; the project manager had to ascertain that they gave the desired result. Whether or not these measures were successful in reducing the defect injection rate could be checked only through the defect data.

The defect prevention activities were performed after the first construction iteration was done. Because the ACIC project had three such iterations, the defect injection rate after the next two iterations was also computed. Figure 11.8 shows the result of the analysis done after the other two iterations. This chart clearly shows the impact of implementing the preventive actions on the defect injection rate: It fell from more than 0.33 to less than 0.1!

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Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

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