Devices for Kaihatsu development project organizations in Japan

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The manufacturers that originally operated with functional model organizations have adopted a project management system as a promoter of the

Fig. 1 Organization of kaikaku project

whole development, to more directly reflect market needs on new product development. In particular, automobile manufacturers, which develop new models concurrently, have adopted a matrix system called shukan or shusa (both mean "in charge") system for products in which the shukan or shusa holds the responsibility for the overall development of new models. But this system also faces the two-boss problem in the same way as other matrix organizations.

Thus, kaihatsu "development" project organization tries to function by defining which section should bear responsibilities for Quality, Cost, and Delivery (schedule), the basic management items of a project. Here, the traditional functional division bears the responsibility for Quality, while the project manager is responsible for cost and schedule. As a project is a cross-organizational system, a project manager does not necessarily excel in specific skills. In the case of a kaihatsu-style project organization, the quality of certain techniques often greatly influences the success of the whole project. Thus, the division of roles for the project is defined by having a person in charge of a functional division take responsibility for quality, while having the project manager take responsibility for the overall project quality. Examples of this are development of new automobile models and electronic products like TV. By defining in this way the role sharing of QCD, the basic management items of project management in a matrix organization, where each responsibility lies becomes clear. At the same time, the system tries to function by defining the role of a functional division as a cost center, placing priority on ideas of the project in terms of profits and schedule. Figure 2 shows this system.

Fig. 2 Role sharing of management items for a project (e.g., automobile company)

In spite of this, there are cases in kaihatsu-style project where priority is placed on quality. In such cases, prioritization is performed as a whole by making a structure in which governance functions in upper organizations where program managers and others belong.

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