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Figure 7.6 Microsoft Project 2000 Gantt Chart View Tasks D and E show a finish-to-fmish relationship. The task Project Complete has a duration of zero days and, therefore, represents a milestone. The Network Diagram View in Figure 7.7 then highlights the project's critical path. One of the most useful tools for scheduling and planning a project is a simple calendar. Figure 7.8 illustrates a Calendar View of the project. Developing the project schedule and budget is an important planning process...

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Once the project schedule and budget ____are determined, the total time and cost of each activity can be summed using a bottom-up _approach to determine a target deadline and budget. The schedule and budget must, however, be reviewed and accepted by the project sponsor or client. This may require several revisions and possible trade-offs before the scope, schedule, and budget relationship is reasonable and acceptable to all of the project stakeholders. Once the schedule and budget are approved...

Project Management Software Tools

A number of software tools are available to make project planning and tracking much easier. In fact, it would be almost unthinkable to plan and manage even a small project without the aid of such a tool. In this section, you will see some examples of how these software tools incorporate and integrate the project management tools and concepts described in the previous section. The overview is intended to show you what these tools do, rather than tell you how to use them. As you can see in Figure...

Getting Back To The Basics Of It Project Management

The passing of the dot-com boom, along with a downturn in the economy, has led many U.S. companies back to the basics of IT project management. As a result, you probably will not find very many projects with sleepless and caffeine-pumped developers (supported by an open checkbook) working around the clock to be the first to market a snazzy Web site. Many experts agree that economic pressures have required IT projects to return to the fundamentals of project management that emphasize strict...

Developing The Project Schedule

Overeager new manager promises his boss a thirty-day schedule for a project to automate passwords on company's mainframe, midrange, and desktop systems. We can't do that, desktop support pilot fish tells manager when he sees the project plan. Have you confirmed that the mainframe and midrange support groups can do the product evaluation in the three days you've allotted fish asks. No, says manager, but if they don't meet the plan, then it'll be their fault it fails, not mine. From Shark Tank...

Introduction

In the last chapter, you learned about defining and managing the project's scope, i.e., j the work to be done in order to achieve the project's MOV or goal. Defining and understanding what you have to do is an important first step to determining how you're going to do the work that has to be done. In this chapter, we will focus on defining the tasks or activities that need to be carried out in order to complete all of the scope-related deliverables as promised. Moreover, we also need to...

Project Estimation

Once the project deliverables and activities have been defined, the next step in developing the project schedule and budget is to estimate each activity's duration. One of the most crucial and difficult activities in project management is estimating the time it will take to complete a particular task. Since a resource generally performs a particular task, a cost associated with that particular resource must be allocated as part of the time it takes to complete that task. The time estimated to...

Review Questions

As an IT professional, why does your mere exis tence in an organization suggest change 2. Why is it just as important to deal with the people issues of an IT project as it is to deal with the tech nical issues 3. Why do many IT professionals shy away from deal ing with the people issues, the soft side of IT proj ects 4. How can a system be a technical success, but an organizational failure 5. How does change management fit with IT project management 6. What is wrong with the idea of just...

Is Swat Teams

SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) teams are law enforcement teams that are highly trained to respond to special situations. The term SWAT has also been applied to expert teams in the IS world. Drawing upon the analogy of police SWAT teams, these IS teams came about to respond effectively to client server projects but this same idea could be applied to many other types of projects. The basic idea of an IS SWAT team is to assemble a small team of highly skilled developers who are experts in the...

Global Technology Solutions

Kellie Matthews stopped in the doorway of Tim Williams' office. Tim was just finishing a conversation on his cell phone, and he motioned for her to come in and sit down. After pressing the end button, he asked How did your meeting go this morning Kellie sat back in her chair. I think it went well, she said. It was with a local textbook distributor interested in purchasing and implementing a call center software package. There are a number of software packages available from different vendors,...

Chapter The Project Schedule and Budget

Global Technology Solutions 146 Introduction 148 Developing the Project Schedule 149 Gantt Charts 150 Project Network Diagrams 150 Activity on the Node (AON) 151 Critical Path Analysis 1S2 PERT 153 Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) 154 Project Management Software Tools 156 Developing the Project Budget 158 Cost Estimation 159 Other Costs 161 Resource Allocation 163 Finalizing the Project Schedule and Budget 163 Chapter Summary 164 Review Questions 165 Extend Tour Knowledge 165 Bibliography...

An Information Technology Project Methodology Itpm

A methodology provides a strategic-level plan for managing and controlling IT projects. Think of a methodology as a template for initiating, planning, and developing an information system. Although information systems may be different, it is the product, and not necessarily the process, of managing the project that makes them different. As you can see in Figure 2.1, the methodology recommends the phases, deliverables, processes, tools, and knowledge areas for supporting an IT project. The key...

Info

Still, a project manager and team should not say no to every scope change request. Some changes will be beneficial and warranted as the project proceeds. The question then becomes, What should be the basis for making a scope change decision As you have seen, the project's MOV guides the project planning process. Similarly, the project's MOV can also guide scope change decisions. A scope change request should be approved if and only if the scope change can bring the project closer to achieving...

MOV

The last several chapters have been leading up to the development of the project schedule and budget. Chapter 3 introduced the project-planning framework (see Figure 7.1). To support this framework, subsequent chapters introduced several Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) areas, including project integration management, human resources management, project scope management, and project time management. In this chapter, you will be introduced to another knowledge area called project...

Project Implementation

At some point, testing is complete and the project team and project manager then become responsible for ensuring that the information system is transferred successfully ERP IMPLEMENTATION IN 10 EASY STEPS 1. Ask the board of directors for an arbitrary but large sum of money ( 300 million should suffice). 2. Give half of the money to consultants. Ask them to select an appropriate ERP package for your com pany. Consultants will audit your business processes for six months and then select SAP,...

Know When To Say When

Identifying the lost-cause IT project is not an easy task. Constant attention to project metrics and an intuitive understanding of the business are required. But, once a lost-cause project is identified, it is important for the organization to shut it down quickly and efficiently. Terminating a project should be an option at each stage or phase of the project. For example, Petrotin, a former subsidiary of Texaco, has about twenty-five IT projects underway that it scrutinizes closely. In the...

Six Myths Of Scope Management

Myth 1 User involvement will result in an IS project grounded in the realities of business needs. Reality Often user involvement is really a vaguely stated idea from senior management handed off to someone in the user community. Involvement by proxy can create problems if the original concept person is too busy or unavailable to discuss the details. Myth 2 A scope statement will clearly define what a project will do. Reality A good scope statement will also make it clear as to what the project...

Extend Your Knowledge

Interview someone who has faced a major change. The change could be either positive or negative. Examples include someone moving to a new country, a new city, losing a job, or any major life event. Your questions should include, but should not be limited, to the following b. What was the reason for the change d. How difficult was the transition f. What feelings or emotions did you feel over the course of the change g. How long did it take before you finally accepted the change 2. Suppose you...

Wild Frontier

Very few companies have a fully integrated approach to managing their information technology and business risks together. The companies that do tend to manage and monitor their IT risks with a fragmented approach. A survey conducted by Arthur Andersen & Co. and The Economist Intelligence Unit found that more than two-thirds of the 150 chief executive offices, chief financial officers, and chief information officers admit that IT risks are not that well-understood in their companies. In fact,...

Crunch Time

The original meaning of the word deadline referred to a line drawn around a military prison, beyond which prisoners were shot. A project deadline can be almost as threatening, and as a project manager, you may find yourself dodging political bullets forged by unreasonable expectations and demands with respect the project's schedule and budget. Although tight schedules may be dictated by legal, regulatory, or competitive situations, some deadlines appear to be arbitrary. Arbitrary deadlines...

Identifying It Project Risks

Risk identification deals with identifying and creating a list of threats and opportunities that may impact the project's goal and or objectives. Each risk and its characteristics are documented to provide a basis for the overall risk management plan. An IT Project Risk Management Framework Identifying and understanding the risks that will impact a project is not always a straightforward task. Many risks can affect a project in different ways and during different phases of the project life...

Project Management Processes

Processes are an integral component of project management. They support all of the activities necessary to create and implement the product of the project. As described in Chapter 2, project management processes are concerned with defining and coordinating the activities and controls needed to manage the project. On the other hand, product-oriented processes focus on the tangible results of the project, such as the application system itself. The product-oriented processes require specific...

Project Metrics

The communications plan described in the previous section is the output of the communications planning process. However, a project metric system must be in place to support the information requirements for all of the stakeholders. In general, project metrics should focus on the following key areas Although the project budget, schedule, and resource assignments are in place, you can still have angered and frustrated stakeholders unless a comprehensive communications plan is in place. Rob...

The Context Of Project Management What Is a Project

Although the need for effectively managing projects has been introduced, we still require a working definition of a project and project management. The Project Management Institute (PMI), an organization that was founded in 1969, has grown to become the leading non-profit professional association in the area of project management. In addition, PMI establishes many project management standards and provides seminars, educational programs, and professional certification. It also maintains the...

Project Integration Management

The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) views project integration management as one of the most important knowledge areas because it coordinates the other eight knowledge areas and all of the project management processes throughout the project's life cycle. It is up to the project manager to ensure that all of the activities and processes are coordinated in order for the project to meet or exceed its MOV. All of these knowledge areas and processes must come together to support the...

The Project Management Office

In the past, many companies did not use a project management approach in the development of IT projects, and as a result, most IT projects were late and over budget. Companies these days are trying to establish a project management culture, and establishing a project office is one way of developing that culture while improving results and cutting cost. In fact, Forrester Research, Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has conducted a study of thirty companies that suggests the mission of project...

Project Scope Definition

Developing a scope statement is a useful first step for defining the scope of the project and setting a boundary. A project's scope, however, should also be defined in terms of the deliverables that the team must provide. These deliverables can be divided into project-oriented deliverables and product-oriented deliverables. This separation gives the team a clearer definition of the work to be accomplished and improves the likelihood of accurately assigning resources and estimating the time and...